Inequalities in immunisation and breast feeding in an ethnically diverse urban area: cross-sectional study in Manchester, UK
Baker, D, Garrow, A and Shiels, C 2011, 'Inequalities in immunisation and breast feeding in an ethnically diverse urban area: cross-sectional study in Manchester, UK' , Epidemiol Community Health, 65 (4) , pp. 346-352.
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Objectives - to examine inequalities in immunisation and breast feeding by ethnic group and their relation to relative deprivation. Design - cross-sectional study. Setting - Manchester, UK. Participants - 20203 children born in Manchester (2002-2007), who had been coded as of white, mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and black or black British ethnicity in the Child Health System database. Main outcome measures - breast feeding at 2 weeks post partum; uptake of triple vaccine (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) at 16 weeks post partum; uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) by the age of 2. Results - black or black British infants had the highest rates of breast feeding at 2 weeks post partum (89%), and South Asian infants had the highest triple and MMR vaccination rates (Indian, 95%, 96%; Pakistani 95%, 95%; Bangladeshi 96%, 95%) after area level of deprivation, parity, parenthood status and age had been controlled for. White infants were least likely to be breast fed at 2 weeks post partum (36%), and to be vaccinated with triple (92%) and MMR vaccines (88%). Within the white ethnic group, lower percentages of immunisation and breast feeding were significantly associated with living in a deprived area and with increasing parity. This was not found within black or black British and Pakistani ethnic groups. Discussion - practices that are protective of child health were consistently less likely to be adopted by white mothers living in deprived areas. Methods of health education and service delivery that are designed for the general population are unlikely to be successful in this context, and evidence of effective interventions needs to be established.
|Themes:||Subjects / Themes > R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Health and Wellbeing
|Schools:||Colleges and Schools > College of Health & Social Care
Colleges and Schools > College of Health & Social Care > School of Nursing, Midwifery, Social Work & Social Sciences > Centre for Social Justice Research
|Journal or Publication Title:||Epidemiol Community Health|
|Depositing User:||Users 47901 not found.|
|Date Deposited:||26 Apr 2011 12:41|
|Last Modified:||20 Aug 2013 16:51|
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