Skip to the content

Distribution of enamel crystallite orientation through an entire tooth crown studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

Simmons, L M, Al-Jawad, M, Kilcoyne, S H and Wood, D J 2011, 'Distribution of enamel crystallite orientation through an entire tooth crown studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction' , European Journal Of Oral Sciences, 119 , pp. 19-24.

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)


The biomineralization of human dental enamel has resulted in a highly anisotropic and heterogeneous distribution of hydroxyapatite crystallites, which in combination with its high mineral content has resulted in one of the most durable and hardest tissues in the human body. In this study, we used position-sensitive synchrotron X-ray diffrac- tion to quantify the spatial variation in the direction and magnitude of the preferred orientation of enamel crystallites across a whole tooth crown. Two-dimensional syn-chrotron X-ray diffraction images were collected with 300 lm spatial resolution over a series of six sequential tooth sections obtained from a single maxillary first premolar and were analyzed using Rietveld refinement. Both the magnitude and the direction of the crystallite orientation were found to have a high spatial heterogeneity. Areas of high crystallite alignment were directed perpendicular to the biting surfaces, which is thought to meet the functional requirements of mastication. The results may assist in our understanding of the structure–function relationship and of the evolutionary development of enamel.

Item Type: Article
Themes: Subjects outside of the University Themes
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering > Salford Innovation Research Centre (SIRC)
Journal or Publication Title: European Journal Of Oral Sciences
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0909-8836
Related URLs:
Funders: The Wellcome Trust
Depositing User: LM Simmons
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2013 11:07
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2015 23:56
References: 1. Johansen E. Tooth enamel: its composition, properties and fundamental structure. Bristol: Wright and Sons, 1965; 177–181. Enamel crystal orientation distribution 5 2. Macho GA, Jiang Y, Spears IR. Enamel microstructure – a truly three-dimensional structure. J Hum Evol 2003; 45: 81–90. 3. Young RA, Mackie PE. Crystallography of human tooth enamel: initial structure refinement. Mater Res Bull 1980; 15: 17–29. 4. Wilson RM, Elliot JC, Dowker SEP. Rietveld refinement of the crystallographic structure of human dental enamel apatites. Am Mineral 1999; 84: 1406–1414. 5. Wilson RM, Elliot JC, Dowker SEP, Smith RI. Rietveld structure refinement of precipitated carbonate apatite using neutron diffraction data. Biomaterials 2004; 25: 2205–2213. 6. Low IM. Depth-profiling of crystal structure, texture, and mi- cro-hardness in functionally graded tooth enamel. J Am Ceram Soc 2004; 87: 2125–2131. 7. Wenk HR, Heidelbach F. Crystal alignment of carbonated apatite in bone and calcified tendon: results from quantitative texture analysis. Bone 1999; 24: 361–369. 8. Meckal AH, Griebsteing WJ, Neal RJ. Structure of mature human dental enamel as observed by electron microscopy. Arch Oral Biol 1965; 10: 775–783. 9. Maas MC, Dumont ER. Built to last: the structure, function, and evolution of primate dental enamel. Evol Anthropol 1999; 8: 133–152. 10. Cui FZ, Ge J. New observations of the hierarchical structure of human enamel, from nanoscale to microscale. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2007; 1: 185–191. 11. Jiang Y, Spears IR, Macho GA. An investigation into frac- tured surfaces of enamel of modern human teeth: a combined SEM and computer visualisation study. Arch Oral Biol 2003; 48: 449–457. 12. Lynch CD, O�sullivan VR, Dockery P, Mcgillycuddy CT, Rees JS, Sloan AJ. Hunter-Schreger band patterns and their implications for clinical dentistry. J Oral Rehabil 2011; 38: 359–365. 13. Al-Jawad M, Steuwer A, Kilcoyne SH, Shore RC, Cywinski R, Wood DJ. 2D mapping of texture and lattice parameters of dental enamel. Biomaterials 2007; 28: 2908– 2914. 14. Al-Jawad M, Simmons LM, Steuwer A, Kilcoyne SH, Shore RC, Cywinski R, Wood DJ. Three dimensional mapping of texture in dental enamel. Key Eng Mater 2008; 361: 877– 880. 15. Hammersley AP. FIT2D: an introduction and overview. ESRF Internal Report 1997; ESRF97HA02T. 16. Meheust Y, Knudsen KG, Fossum JO. Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image. J Appl Crystallogr 2006; 39: 661–670. 17. Rietveld HM. A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures. J Appl Crystallogr 1969; 2: 65–71. 18. Larson AC, Von Dreele RB. General Structure Analysis System (GSAS). Los Alamos National Laboratory Report 2004; LAUR: 86–748. 19. Von Dreele RB. Quantitative texture analysis by Rietveld refinement. J Appl Crystallogr 1997; 30: 517–525. 20. Xu HHK, Smith DT, Jahanmir S, Romberg E, Kelly JR, Thompson VP, Rekow ED. Indentation damage and mechan- ical properties of human enamel and dentin. J Dent Res 1998; 77: 472–480. 21. White SN, Luo W, Paine MI, Fong H, Sarikaya M, Snead MI. Biological organization of hydroxyapatite crystallites into a fibrous continuum toughens and controls anisotropy in human enamel. J Dent Res 2001; 80: 321–326. 22. Spears IR. A three-dimensional finite element model of pris- matic enamel: a reappraisal of the data on the Youngs modulus of enamel. J Dent Res 1997; 76: 1690–1697. 23. Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR, Moxham BJ. Oral anatomy, histology and embryology. New York: Mosby, 2002.

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)