Organisational readiness to implement building information modelling: A framework for design consultants in Malysia
, PhD thesis, University of Salford.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is defined as an approach to building design and construction through modelling technology, associated sets of processes and people to produce, communicate and analyse building information models. The implementation of BIM is expected to improve the delivery of design and construction through 3D visualisation, integrated and automated drawing production, intelligent documentation and information retrieval, consistent data and information, automated conflict detection and automated material take off.
Although the potential benefits of BIM are well documented, the implementation process requires proper strategic planning and a thoughtful review of many aspects to realise those benefits. One part of the strategic planning is the readiness assessment where it measures the current position of the organisation as compared to the targeted implementation requirements of the BIM system by using several categories and readiness criteria. Set against the background of the Malaysian construction industry, in the infancy stage of BIM implementation, however has raised the question about the categories and the readiness criteria that should be used to conduct the assessment. The lack of documented BIM implementation in a form of publicly available reports, best practice and guidelines has also escalated the situation.
The aim of this research was therefore set to support improvements in the design consultant practice by developing an organisational readiness framework for BIM implementation. The research explored and identified the readiness criteria as the main components of the framework. The research engaged a multiple-case-studies approach and four design consultant companies were selected for the primary data collection. Data from each company was analysed by using content analysis technique before it was cross analysed to determine the pattern of answer. After that, the findings were discussed and theoretically validated to produce a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework was later validated through a focus group workshop to produce the final framework.
As the research’s main outcome, the readiness framework consists of four elements. The first readiness element is Process which has three categories residing within it, which are, Process Change Strategy, BIM Implementation Management, and Policy. The second readiness element is Management which includes the categories of Business Strategy, Management Competency, and Leadership. The third element is Technology which also has three categories residing within it, which are Hardware, Technical Support, and Software and the fourth element is People, which has four categories and they are, Roles and Responsibilities, Skill and Attitude, Training and Education and Work Environment. Meanwhile, the 38 readiness criteria that were identified and validated, resided accordingly within each readiness category. The readiness framework as the main outcome of the research can be used to assist the design consultant to identify the readiness gap of the company. The importance lies on informing the area of concern so the effort for BIM implementation can be prioritised. In addition, the individual case study report which had information rich data could help the industry to understand the BIM implementation issue within the context of Malaysia. The outcome of this research showed that the main problems that are preventing consultants from embracing BIM were rarely technical. They were related more to the management and people issues which underpin the capability of the company to successfully implement BIM.
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