Skip to the content

Children's and parents' perspectives of a supportive environment for active travel to School

O'Sullivan, MM 2013, Children's and parents' perspectives of a supportive environment for active travel to School , PhD thesis, University of Salford.

[img]
Preview
PDF
Download (11MB) | Preview

Abstract

Active Travel to School is a term used to refer to any mode of travel that uses physical activity to go to school such as walking and cycling. Despite its demonstrated physical, developmental and sustainable benefits and after years of nationwide policies, strategies and schemes in place to increase it, the shift towards Active Travel to School in the UK has been negligible, and car use and road traffic have not declined. Within this context, this PhD research was funded by the EPSRC under a linked studentship to the ongoing VISIONS2030 project which explored the current dependency on motorised travel and how walking and cycling could be encouraged in the future. This research contributes to the project by examining the factors that influence Active Travel to School and by bringing the perspectives of the group of parents and children about a supportive environment for it to the study. Underpinned by the Interpretivist and Social-constructivist paradigm, the research adopted a qualitative survey approach in which 130 participants were involved through a range of interactive and novel participatory methods designed and implemented through focus groups, activity groups and semi-structured interviews carried out at schools and households from urban areas. The results show key factors acting as both barriers and enablers: despite perceptions that car use has many advantages for families and that Active Travel to School is not viable under current safety conditions, there is a substantial potential for a shift into an active travel culture that can be achieved through five different but simultaneous approaches in policy by: “Creating an easy, pleasant, safe and barrier free physical environment”, “Creating a social environment for active travel”, “Providing a supportive public transport”, “Convincing people of its benefits through promotion, incentives, education and innovations” and “Imposing restrictions to the use of private vehicles”.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Themes: Built and Human Environment
Schools: Schools > School of the Built Environment
Funders: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Depositing User: MM O'Sullivan
Date Deposited: 30 Apr 2014 17:09
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2015 23:54
References: LIST OF REFERENCES Adler, R. 2012. Cycling Cultures: Summary of key findings and recommendations. London: ESRC and UEL Appleyard, D., 1981. Livable Streets. Berkeley: University of California Press, Ltd. Barton, H., 1998. Design for Movement. In: Greed, C., Roberts, M., (eds) Introducing Urban Design: Interventions and Responses. Essex: Pearson. Benson, J., and Scriven, A. 2012. Psychological, social and environmental barriers to cycling to school. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. 50 (1). 34-44 Bronfenbrenner, U. 1986. Ecology of the family as a context to human development: Research perspectives. Development Psychology. 22. 723-742. Brunton, G., Oliver, S., Oliver, K., and Lorenc, T., 2006. A synthesis of research addressing children’s, young people’s and parent’s views of walking and cycling for transport. University of London, EPPI- Centre. Burns, R., 1997. Introduction to research methods. Melbourne : Addison Wesley Longman CABE 2006a. The Principles of Inclusive Design: They include you. London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. CABE. 2008. Inclusion by design: equality, diversity and the built environment. London: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. Cahill, M., Ruben, T., and Winn, S. 1996. Children and Transport: Travel Patterns, Attitudes and Leisure Activities of Children in the Brighton Area. University of Brighton, Health and Social Policy Research Centre. Cahill, C. 2007. Beyond the journal article: Representations, audience, and the presentation of Participatory Action Research. In Participatory Action Research Approaches and Methods. London: Routledge. Charmaz, K. 2007. Grounded theory. In George Ritzer (Ed.), Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology. Blackwell Reference Online, http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/ [Accessed: August 08 2012] Chambers, R. 2006. PRA, PLA and pluralism: practice and theory in P. Reason and H. Bradbury, The SAGE Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice, Second Edition, Sage, London. Christensen, P. and O’Brien, M., 2003. Children in the City: Home, Neighbourhood and Community. London: Routledge. CIHT, 2008. Road Safety Audit. London: The Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation. CIHT. 2010. Manual for Streets 2. London: The Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation. Church, A., Frost, M. and Sullivan, K. 2000. Transport and Social Exclusion in London - Report Summary. London: London Transport Planning. Clifton, K., and Handy, L., 2001. Qualitative Methods in Travel Behaviour Research. The International Conference of Transport Survey Quality and Innovation, Kruger National Park, South Africa. August. Comte, A. 1853. The Postive Philosophy of Auguste Comte Freely Translated and Condensed by Harriet Martineau. Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. [Web page] http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=cdl;idno=cdl367 [Accessed 25 May 2012] Creswell, J. 1998. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. CTC. 2009. Cycling and Health. Cyclists’ Touring Club. [Web page] http://www.dft.gov.uk/cyclingengland/encouraging-cycling/benefits-of-cycling [Accessed 25 May 2012] Cullen, G. 2005. The Concise Townscape. Oxford: Elsevier Press. Cycling England, 2010. Benefits of cycling. [Web page] http://www.dft.gov.uk/cyclingengland/encouraging-cycling/benefits-of-cycling/ [Accessed 30 May 2011] Dales, J. 2013. Get Britain Cycling Inquiry. Urban Movement. 5th May. Available on-line at: http://www.urbanmovement.co.uk/2/post/2013/02/get-britain-cycling-inquiry.html Davis, A., and Jones, L. 1996. Children in the urban environment: an issue for the new public health agenda. Health & Place, 2(2), pp.107-113 Davis, A. 2001. Getting around: listening to children’s views. Proceedings of the institution of Civil Engineers. 145: 191-194 Davison, P., reed, N., Halden, D. and Dillon, J. 2003. Children’s Attitudes to Sustainable Transport. Edimburgh: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Dellinger, A. and Staunton, C., 2002. Barriers to Children Walking and Bicycling to School-United states, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality weekly. 51(32), pp.701-704 Demetre, J., Lee, D., Pitcairn, T., Grieve., R, Thomson, J., and Ampofo-Boateng, K., 1992. Errors in young children’s decisions about traffic gaps: Experiments with roadside simulations. British Journal of Psychology. 83(2), pp.189-202 Denscombe, M. 2007. The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Social Research Projects. Berkshire:Open University Press. DCSF. 2006a. School Travel and Transport Guidance. London: Department for Children, Schools and Families DCSF. 2006b. Sustainable Schools. London: Department for Children, Schools and Families DCSF. 2007. Children's Plan. London: Department for Children, Schools and Families. London. Department for Education. 2011. Funding allocations for extended rights to free travel and general duty to promote sustainable travel. [Webpage] Available on-line at: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/adminandfinance/travelandtransport [Accessed 30 May 2012] DETR. 1998a. A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone. London: Department of the Environment, Transport and Regions; The Stationary Office. DETR. 2000b. Our Towns and Cities: The Future - Delivering an Urban Renaissance, The Urban White Paper. London: The Stationery Office. DETR. 2001. Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport. London: the Stationery Office DfES. 2003. Travelling to school - an action plan. London: Department for Education and Skills. DfES. 2004. Every Child Matters...And Every Young Person: What You Said and What We're Going to Do. London: HMSO. DfES. 2005a. Extended Schools: Access to Opportunities and Services for all, a prospectus. London: Department for Education and Skills. DfES. 2005b. Higher Standards: better Schools for all. London: DfES. DfES. 2006a. A Short Guide to the Educations and Inspections Act 2006. Department for Education and Skills, London, HMSO. DfT. 1998. A new deal for transport: better for everyone. London: Department for Transport DfT. 2012. Child and Teenager Road Safety. Available on-line at: http://www.dft.gov.uk/topics/road-safety/child-and-teenager-road-safety [Accessed 12 May 2012]. DoH. (Department of Health) 1998. Our Healthier Nation. London: Department of Health DoH. (Department of Health) 1999. Choosing health, making healthier choice easier. The National Healthy School Standard. London: Department of Health. DoH (Department of Health). 2004. Choosing health. [Webpage] http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Choosinghealth/index.htm. [Accessed 17 May 2011]. Dunn, S., Wright, C., Cox, R., Atkinson, R., MacDougall, C. 2001. Creating Supportive Environments for Physical Activity:Encouraging Walking in the 21st Century. Adelaide: SEPA Project. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A., 2002. Management Research: An Introduction. London: Sage. Ellaway, A., Macintyre, S., Hiscock, R. and Kearns, A., 2003. In the driving seat: psychosocial benefits from private motor vehicle transport compared to public transport. Transportation Research Part F - Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 6 (3). 217-331 Essex County Council, 2006a. Designing for Pedestrians: A guide to good practice. Bracknell: BRE Press. Faulkner, G., Richichi, V., Buliung, R., Fusco, C., and Moola, F. 2010. What’s “quickest and easiest”: parental decision making about school trip mode. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 7:62 Flick, U. 2002. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. London: Sage Fraser, S., Lewis, V., Ding, S., Kellet, M., and Robinson, C., 2004. Doing research with children and young people. London: Sage in association with The Open University. Fraser, M. 2004a. Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective. Washington, DC: NASW Press. Freeman, C., and Vass, E. 2010. Planning, Maps and Children’s Lives: A Cautionary Tale. Planning Theory & Practice, 11(1), pp. 65-88 Gaskell, C. 2008. But they just don't respect us': young people's experiences of (dis)respected citizenship and the New labour Respect Agenda. Children's Geographies, 6 (3): 223-238. Gatersleben, B., and Uzzell, D. 2007. The journey to work: exploring commuter mood among driver, cyclists, walkers and users of public transport. Environment and Behavior. 39 (3). 416-431. Gatersleben, B. and Haddad, H. 2010. Who is the typical bicyclist? Transportation Research. Part F, 13, 41-48. Gatersleben, B. 2012. The Psychology of Sustainable Transport. The Psychologist. 25 (9). 676-679. Gehl, J. 1987: Life between buildings: Using public space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Gehl, J. 2004. Towards a Fine City for People: Public Spaces and Public Life. London: TfL, CLP and Gehl Architects. Gehl, J. 2010: Cities for people. Washington DC: Island Press. Germain, C. 1991. Human Behaviour in the social environment: An ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press. Gill, J., Johnson, P., 2002. Research Methods for Managers. London: SAGE Goldblatt, L., 2007. The landscape of Childhood: A look at Childhood, Identity and Environment. Boulder (USA): Naropa University. Gray, S., Pedler, A., and Gardner, G. 1998. Assessment of Cycle Challenge Initiatives: Cycling to School. Wokingham, Berkshire: Transport Research Laboratory. Gray, 2004. Doing Research in the Real World. London: Sage. Greig, R. 2012 Qualitative research into motivations and barriers to cycling. Western Australia: DoT. [PDF Download ] Available at: http://www.atrf.info/papers/2012/2012_Greig.pdf Handy, S., Weston, L. & Mokhatarian, P. 2005. Driving by choice or necessity? Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 39(2-3), 183-203. Hamilton-Baillie, B. 2000. Home Zones: Reconciling People, Places and Transport. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Hamilton-Baillie, B. 2008. Shared Space: Reconciling People, Places and Traffic. Built Environment. 34 (2). Hart, C. 1998. Doing a literature review. London: Sage. Hart, R. 1979. Children’s Experience of place. New York: Irvington. Hart, R. 1997. Children’s Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care. London: Earthscan Hillman, M., Henderson, I., and Whalley, A. 1973. Unfeedom road. New Society, 23(3):234-236 Hillman, M., Adams, J. and Whitelegg, J., 1990. One False Move: A Study of Children’s Independent Mobility. London: Policy Studies Institute. Hine, J. 1996. Pedestrian travel experiences: assessing the impact of traffic on behaviour and perceptions of safety using an in-depth interview technique. Journal of Transport Geography. Hine, J. and Mitchell, F. 2001. The Role of Public Transport in Social Exclusion. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Hoehner, C., 2005. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 28(2), pp. 105-116 Horton, D. 2007. Fear of Cycling. In: Cycling and Society. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Horton, D. and Parkin, J. 2012. Conclusion: Towards a revolution in cycling. In: Parkin, J., ed. Cycling and Sustainability. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 303-325. Horton, D. 2011. Don’t ride, won’t ride? Cycle Culture Transport. [PDF Download] Available at http://www.ctc.org.uk/file/member/201105048.pdf [Accessed 15 May 2013] INVOLVE, 2004. Promoting public involvement in NHS, public health, and social care research. London: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Jackson, A., and Harris, P., 2006. Foresight Tackling Obesities: Future choices – perspectives of 13 years olds. [PDF Download ] available at: http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Obesity/17.pdf [Accessed 23 February 2010] Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. Jansen, H. 2010. The Logic of Qualitative Survey Research and its Position in the Field of Social Research Methods. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(2), Art. 11, [online] http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002110 Jones, L., Davis, A., and Eyers, T. 2000. Young people, transport and risk: comparing access and independent mobility in urban, suburban and rural environments. Health Education Journal. 59. 315-328. Jones, P., Marshall, S., and Boujenko, N. 2008. Creating More People-Friendly Urban Streets Through 'Link and Place' Street Planning and Design. IATSS Research. 32 (1). Jones, P., and Boujenko, N. 2011. Street Planning and Design Using ‘Link’ and ‘Place. Journeys. Jones, T., Pooley, C., Chisholm, A., Horton, D., Scheldeman, G., 2010. Understanding walking and cycling: Interim findings from a multi-method approach to investigate household decision making in relation to short journeys in urban areas. Paper from the 12th WCTR, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-15. Kampmann, J. 2004. Societalization of childhood: New opportunities, Newdemand In H. Brembeck, B. Johansson and J. Kampmann (eds.), Beyond thecompetent child, Roskilde (Denmark): Roskilde University Press. Karsten, L., Willem V. 2006. Children in the City: Reclaiming the Street. Children, Youth and Environments. 16(1): 151-167. Kay, D. Reynolds, J. Rodrigues, S. Lee, A. Anderson, B, Gibbs, R. Monkhouse, C., and Gill, T., 2011. Fairness in a car-dependent Society. London: Sustainable Development Commission Kegerreis, S., 1993. Independent mobility and children's mental and emotional development. In, Hillman, M., (ed) Children, Transport and the Quality of life. London: Policy Studies Institute. Kirk, J. and Miller, M. 1986. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. London: Sage KIDSCAPE, Elliot, M., 1990. Keeping safe: A practical guide to talking with children. London: KIDSCAPE Knowles R, Shaw J, and Docherty I. 2008. Transport Geographies: Mobilities, Flows and Spaces. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Kuhn, T. 1987. La estructura de las revoluciones científicas, Mexico:FCE Kytta, M. 1997. Children's independent mobility in urban, small-town and rural environments. In, Camstra, R. (ed). Growing up in a Changing Urban Landscape. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 41-52. Lewis, A., and Lindsay, G., 2000. Researching Children’s Perspectives. Buckingham: Open University Press. Lincoln, Y., and Guba, E. 1985. Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Living Streets. 2008. Backseat Children: how our car dependent culture compromises safety on our streets. London: Walk to School Campaign. Living Streets. 2010. Is it safe to let our children walk to school? London: Walk Mackie, H. 2009. ‘I want to ride my bike’: overcoming barriers to cycling to intermediate schools. NZ: Transport Agency research report no. 380. Matthews, H. 2003. The street as a liminal space: the barbed spaces of childhood. In: Christensen, P. and O'Brien, M. (eds.) Children in the City: Home, Neighbourhood and Community. London: RoutledgeFalmer. Maxwell, J. 2005. Qualitative Research Design: An interactive Approach. CA: Sage Publications McDonald, N. 2008. Household Interactions and children's school travel: the effect of parental work patterns on walking and biking to school. Journal of Transport Geography, 35: 324-331.
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/30830

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year