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Kinematics and kinetics of maximal velocity sprinting and specificity of training in elite athletes

Sides, DL 2015, Kinematics and kinetics of maximal velocity sprinting and specificity of training in elite athletes , PhD thesis, University of Salford.

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Abstract

Maximal velocity sprinting has been studied extensively from a biomechanical standpoint, however little is known of the biomechanics characteristics at sprint velocities that typify elite athletic performance, due to the difficulties in accessing such athletes and collecting data within a competitive environment. Research has investigated the optimal training to achieve such velocities, with a focus on the specificity of training principle. However the specificity of the common training methods of elite sprinters is yet to be investigated from a biomechanical perspective. Investigations of ten international level sprinters in a competition environment revealed the kinematic variables which characterise sprint velocities exceeding 10.0m/s. Elite sprinters minimised the touchdown distance and knee flexion during ground contact, and terminated stance prior to full extension of the hip and knee. An additional kinetic analysis on six elite male sprinters revealed a greater hip angle at touchdown and higher maximum and average hip velocities in swing were associated with lower peak braking forces. Reduced hip and knee extension at toe-off along with a greater degree of maximum hip flexion were associated with a higher vertical impulse. A movement specificity framework was developed to quantify the holistic specificity of training methods based on biomechanical movement principles. The Bulgarian split squat drop had a high specificity to maximal velocity sprinting with respect to the loading principles. Running drills were highly specific based on coordination principles, in particular the leg extension velocities in the late phases of stance. The kinematic and kinetic models can be used by coaches to evaluate individual athletes against true elite sprinting, whilst the movement specificity framework can be utilised to design and maximise the specificity of sprint training programmes.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Contributors: Graham-Smith, P (Supervisor)
Themes: Subjects outside of the University Themes
Schools: Schools > School of Health Sciences
Funders: UK Athletics
Depositing User: DL Sides
Date Deposited: 25 Aug 2015 10:36
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2015 23:54
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/34332

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