Skip to the content

Seasonality and age is positively related to brain size in Andrew’s toad (Bufo andrewsi)

Jiang, A, Zhong, MJ, Xie, M, Lou, SL, Yin, L, Jehle, R and Liao, WB 2015, 'Seasonality and age is positively related to brain size in Andrew’s toad (Bufo andrewsi)' , Evolutionary Biology, 42 (3) , pp. 339-348.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (1MB) | Request a copy


The Expensive Brain Framework (EBF) and the Cognitive Buffer Hypothesis are commonly used to explain inter- and intraspecific variation in brain size and brain architecture. Using Andrew’s toad (Bufo andrewsi) as a model species, we investigated whether brain attributes in amphibians are shaped by the interplay between age and the length of the activity season as determined by altitude and latitude. We found significant differences in absolute and relative brain volume across 12 populations. Supporting the EBF, we observed a positive correlation between absolute and relative brain volume with season length. In particular, populations experiencing long seasons were characterized by having relatively large olfactory nerve and optic tecta. Relative, but not absolute, brain volume was also positively correlated with individual age. When accounting for the effects of body size and brain volume, however, the size of different brain structures (olfactory nerve, olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, optic tecta and cerebellum) was independent from age. Taken together, our findings are largely in agreement with the EBF to determine brain size variation in Andrew’s toad.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Ecosystems and Environment Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Evolutionary Biology
Publisher: Springer US
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0071-3260
Related URLs:
Funders: National Natural Sciences Foundation of China, Sichuan Province Outstanding Youth Academic Technology Leaders Program, Sichuan Province Department of Education Innovation Team Project, Students Science and Technology Innovation Fund of China West Normal University
Depositing User: R Jehle
Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2015 15:49
Last Modified: 25 Nov 2015 12:06

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)


Downloads per month over past year