Skip to the content

A multi-scale exploration into the spatial patterns of a three dimensional Urban Tree Infrastructure (UTI) : integrating landscape connectivity, network resilience, and social deprivation

Bishop, OJ 2015, A multi-scale exploration into the spatial patterns of a three dimensional Urban Tree Infrastructure (UTI) : integrating landscape connectivity, network resilience, and social deprivation , PhD thesis, University of Salford.

Download (9MB) | Preview


A functionally connected urban tree infrastructure (UTI) contributes to ecosystem function, resilience, and the provision of Ecosystem Services (ES). Variation in tree height is an important attribute influencing movement of passerines, habitat quality and landscape patterns. UTI provided ES are particularly beneficial in the most deprived areas of a city. Presented in this thesis is an exploration into the social-ecological shape of a UTI using a holistic, multi-scale and dimensional, landscape approach. The potential landscape connectivity of a UTI in the City of Salford, UK was quantified and compared using the integral index of connectivity (IIC) across vertically stratified canopies existing in 2005, 2009, and 2013. System resilience was assessed through landscape graph network analysis and by the identification of canopies critical in maintaining connectivity (dIIC). The index of multiple deprivation (IMD) was related to UTI landscape composition and configuration through a series of statistical tests. The connectivity of Salford’s vertically stratified UTI was low (IIC = <0.000001 – 0.0045), besides this the temporal change in connectivity was complex with no discernible overall pattern. The rate of connectivity increase decreased after a 90-120m gap-crossing threshold. The resilience of Salford’s UTI relies on the connectivity of canopies within 4 to 5 sub-connected regions, depending on passerine perception, increasing to 10 -16 smaller regions for canopies above 17.1m. The resilience and stability of these sub-connected regions were often reliant on a central canopy patch. UTI composition is related negatively with deprivation, UTI configuration is related positively, while structural diversity of canopy heights revealed no correlation with deprivation. The research in this thesis contributes to the debates on how to best manage the UTI for both people and nature. The findings of this thesis have a number of important implications for future urban landscape management, especially as previously unknown landscape patterns have been identified.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: urban trees, landscape connectivity, vertical structure, passerines, urban birds, networks, landscape graphs, resilience, deprivation, urban tree infrastructure, three dimensional, threshold
Themes: Built and Human Environment
Health and Wellbeing
Subjects outside of the University Themes
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Ecosystems and Environment Research Centre
Funders: Non funded research
Depositing User: OJ Bishop
Date Deposited: 09 Nov 2015 14:51
Last Modified: 09 Nov 2015 14:51
References: Agbenyega, O., Burgess, P.J., Cook, M., Morris, J. (2009). Application of an ecosystem function framework to perceptions of community woodlands. Land Use Policy, 26, 551-557. Agyeman, J., and Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': the emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170(2), 155-164. Albert, R., Jeong, H., and Barabási, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature, 406, 376-382. Alberti, M. (2005). The Effects of Urban Patterns on Ecosystem Function. International Regional Science Review, 28(2), 168-192. doi: 10.1177/0160017605275160 Alberti, M., Marzluff, J., M., Shulenberger, E., Bradley, G., Ryan, C., and Zumbrunnen, C. (2003). Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems. BioScience, 53(12), 1169-1179. Andersson, E. (2006). Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities. Ecology and Society, 11(1). Andrén, H. (1994). Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Birds and Mammals in Landscapes with Different Proportions of Suitable Habitat: A Review. Oikos, 71(3), 355-366. Awade, M., and Metzger, J. P. (2008). Using gap-crossing capacity to evaluate functional connectivity of two Atlantic rainforest birds and their response to fragmentation. Austral Ecology, 33(7), 863-871. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01857.x Baguette, M., and Van Dyck, H. (2007). Landscape connectivity and animal behaviour: functional grain as a key determinant for dispersal. Landscape Ecology, 22, 1117-1129. Balvanera, P., Pfisterer, A. B., Buchmann, N., Jing-Shen, H., Nakashizuka, T., Raffaelli, D., et al. (2006). Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters, 9, 1146-1156. Barabási, A. L., and Bonabeau, E. (2003). Scale-Free Networks. Scientific American, 288, 60-69. Barbosa, O., Tratalos, J. A., Armsworth, P. R., Davies, R. G., Fuller, R. A., Johnson, P., et al. (2007). Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning. 187-195. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004 Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science, 319 (5864), 769-771. doi: 10.1126/science.1151419 Bayer, H. L. (2004). Hawth's Analysis Tools for ArcGIS. Available at Bélisle, M. (2005). Measuring Landscape connectivity: the Challenge of Behavioral Landscape Ecology. Ecology, 86(8), 1988-1995. Bélisle, M., and Desrochers, A. (2002). Gap-Crossing decisions by forest birds: an empirical basis for parameterizing spatially-explicit, individual-based models. Landscape Ecology, 17(3), 219-231. Bell, S., Hamilton, V., Montarzino, A., Rothnie, H., Travlou, P., and Alves, S. (2008). Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review. Edinburgh: Greenspace Scotland Berkes, F., Colding, J., and Folke, C. (2003). Navigating Social-Ecological Systems. Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bierwagen, B. G. (2007). Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal. Urban Ecosystems, 10, 29-42. Biggs, R., Schlüter, M., Biggs, D., Bohensky, E. L., BurnSilver, S., Cundill, G., et al. (2012). Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(1), 421-448. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-051211-123836 BlueSky. (2012). ProximiTREE Tree Map Retrieved 12/08/2013, 2013, from Bodin, O., and Saura, S. (2010). Ranking individual habitat patches as connectivity providers: Integrating network analysis and patch removal experiments. Ecological Modelling, 221(19), 2393-2405. Box, J., and Harrison, C. (1993). Natural spaces in urban places. Town and Country Planning, 62(9), 231-235. Britt, C., and Johnston, M. (2008). Trees in Towns II. A new survey of urban trees in England and their condition and management Research for Amenity Trees No. 9. London: Department for Communities and Local Government. Bunn, A. G., Urban, D. L., and Keitt, T. H. (2000). Landscape connectivity: A conservation application of graph theory. Journal of Environmental Management, 59(4), 265-278. doi: 10.1006/jema.2000.0373 CABE. (2010a). Community green: using local spaces to tackle inequality and improve health. London: CABE. CABE. (2010b). Urban green nation: building the evidence base. London: CABE. Carpenter, S. R., Mooney, H. A., Agard, J., Capistrano, D., DeFries, R. S., Dãaz, S., et al. (2009). Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(5), 1305-1312. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0808772106 Caswell, H. (1976). Community Structure: a neutral model analysis. Ecological monographs, 46, 327-354. Chen, W. Y., and Wang, D. T. (2013). Urban forest development in China: Natural endowment or socioeconomic product? Cities, 35, 62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2013.06.011 Cohen, D. A., McKenzie, T. L., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., Golinelli, D., and Lurie, N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity. American Journal of Public health, 97(3), 509-514. Creegan, H. P., and Osborne, P. E. (2005). Gap-crossing decisions of woodland songbirds in Scotland: an experimental approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(4), 678-687. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01057.x Cressie, N. A. C. (1993). Statisitcs for spatial data. New York: Wiley-Interscience Crocker, M., and Mabey, R. (2005). Birds Britannica. London: Chatto and Windus. Crooks, K. R., and Sanjayan, M. (2006a). Connectivity conservation: maintaining connections for nature. In K. R. Crooks andM. Sanjayan (Eds.), Connectivity Conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crooks, K. R., and Sanjayan, M. (Eds.). (2006b). Connectivity Conservation. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crouzeilles, R., Lorini, M. L., and Grelle, C. E. V. (2013). The importance of using sustainable use protected areas for functional connectivity. Biological Conservation, 159, 450-457. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.10.023 D'Eon, R. G., Glenn, S. M., Parfitt, I., and Fortin, M. J. (2002). Landscape Connectivity as a function of Scale and Organisms Vagility in a Real Forested Landscape. Ecology and Society, 6(2), 10. Dandy, N., Marzano, M., Moseley, D., Stewart, A., and Lawrence, A. (2011). Exploring the role of street trees in the improvement and expansion of green networks. In M. Johnston andG. Percival (Eds.), Trees, people, and the built environment. Proceedings of the Urban Trees Research Conference 13-14 April 2011. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. Decout, S., Manel, S., Miaud, C., and Luque, S. (2012). Integrative approach for landscape-based graph connectivity analysis: a case study with the common frog (Rana temporaria) in human-dominated landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 27(2), 267-279. doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9694-z Desrochers, A., and Hannon, S. J. (1997). Gap Crossing Decisions by Forest Songbirds during the Post-Fledging Period. Conservation Biology, 11(5), 1204-1210. DeVault, T. L., Rhodes, O. E., and Hivik, J. A. (2003). Scavenging by vertebrates: Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos, 102, 225-234. Dobbs, C., Escobedo, F. J., and Zipperer, W. C. (2011). A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and goods indicators. Landscape and Urban Planning, 99(3-4), 196-206. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.11.004 Dolman, P. M., Hinsley, S. A., Bellamy, P. E., and Watts, K. (2007a). Woodland birds in patchy landscapes: the evidence base for strategic networks. Ibis, 149(Suppl.2), 146-160. Dolman, P. M., Hinsley, S. A., Bellamy, P. E., and Watts, K. (2007b). Woodland birds in patchy landscapes: the evidence base for strategic networks. Ibis, 149(2), 146-160. Duncan, D. T., Kawachi, I., Kum, S., Aldstadt, J., Piras, G., Matthews, S. A., et al. (2014). A Spatially Explicit Approach to the Study of Socio-Demographic Inequality in the Spatail Distribution of Trees across Boston Neighbourhoods. Spatial Demography, 2(1), 1-29. Dunning, J. B., Danielson, J. B., and Pulliam, H. R. (1992). Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos, 65, 169-175. EDINA. (2009). PROFILE DTM [367100.0, 391900.0 - 383200.0, 404000.0], Scale 1:10000, Tiles: sd60se,sd70sw,sd70se,sd80sw,sj69ne,sj69se,sj79sw,sj79nw,sj79ne,sj79se,sj89sw,sj89nw, Updated: November 2009, Ordnance Survey (GB). Using: EDINA Digimap Ordnance Survey Service, <>, Downloaded: Fri Nov 09 13:07:27 GMT 2012. Ernstson, H., Van der Leeuw, S., Redman, C. L., Meffert, D. J., Davis, G., Alfsen, C., et al. (2010). Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems. AMBIO: A journal of the human environment, 39(8), 531-545. Escobedo, F. J., Kroeger, T., and Wagner, J. E. (2011). Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. [Review]. Environmental Pollution, 159(8-9), 2078-2087. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.010 Evans, D., Pococl, M. J. O., and Memmott, J. (2013). The robustness of a network of ecological networks to habitat loss. Ecology Letters, 1-9. doi: 10.1111/ele.12117 Fahrig, L. (1998). When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival? Ecological Modelling, 105, 273-292. Fahrig, L. (2003). Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34(1), 487-515. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132419 Fairburn, J., Walker, G., and Mitchell, G. (2005). Investigating environmental justice in Scotland: links between measures of environmental quality and social deprivation. Edinburgh: Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research. Farina, A., and Belgrano, A. (2004). The eco-field: A new paradigm for landscape ecology. Ecological Research, 19, 107-120. Farina, A., and Belgrano, A. (2006). The Eco-field Hypothesis: Toward a Cognitive Landscape. Landscape Ecology, 21(1), 5-17. doi: 10.1007/s10980-005-7755-x Fernández-Juricic, E. (2000). Bird community composition patterns in urban parks of Madrid: the role of age, size, and isolation. Ecological Research, 15, 373-383. Fernández-Juricic, E. (2001a). Avifaunal Use of Wooded Streets in an Urban Landscape. Conservation Biology, 14(2), 513-521. Fernández-Juricic, E. (2001b). Density dependent habitat selection of corridors in a fragmented landscape. Ibis, 143(2), 278-287. Fernández-Juricic, E., and Jokimäki, J. (2001). A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10, 2023-2043. Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D. B. (2007b). Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16(3), 265-280. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00287.x Fisher, B., Turner, R., and Morling, P. (2009). Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics, 68(3), 643-653. Flather, C. H., and Bevers, M. (2002). Patchy Reaction-Diffusion and Population Abundance: The Relative Importance of Habitat Amount and Arrangement. The American Naturalist, 159(1), 40-56. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253-267. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002 Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., and Walker, B. (2002). Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 31(5), 437-440. Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., et al. (2004). Regime Shifts, Resilience, and Biodiversity in Ecosystem Management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35(1), 557-581. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.105711 Foltête, J.-C., Clauzel, C., and Vuidel, G. (2012). A software tool dedicated to the modelling of landscape networks. Environmental Modelling & Software, 38, 316-327. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.002 Foltête, J.-C., Girardet, X., and Clauzel, C. (2014). A methodological framework for the use of landscape graphs in land-use planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 124, 140-150. Forestry Commission. (2010). Benefits of green infrastructure. Farnam: Report by Forest Research. Forestry Commission. (2012). Trees, people and the built environment: Proceedings of the Urban Trees Research Conference 13-14 April 2011. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. Freeman, L. C. (1979). Centrality in Social Networks. Conceptual Clarification. Social Networks, 1, 215-239. Galpern, P., Manseau, M., and Fall, A. (2011). Patch-based graphs of landscape connectivity: A guide to construction, analysis and application for conservation. Biological Conservation, 144, 44-55. Gardner, R. H., Milne, B. T., Turner, M. G., and O'Neill, R. V. (1987). Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology, 1, 19-28. Garmestani, A. S., Allen, C. R., and Gunderson, L. (2009). Panarchy: discontinuities reveal similarities in the dynamic system structure of ecological and social systems. Papers in Natural Resources, 166. Gastner, M. T., and Newman, M. E. J. (2006). The spatial structure of networks. European Physical Journal B, 49, 247-252. Gilchrist, K. (2011). Promoting wellbeing through environment: the role of urban forestry. In M. Johnston andG. Percival (Eds.), Trees, people and the built environment. Proceedings of the Urban Trees Research Conference 13-14 April 2011. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. Gill, S. E., Handley, J. F., Ennos, A. R., Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindleu, S. J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: A template for landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87, 210-222. Goldstein, E. L., Gross, M., and DeGraaf, R. M. (1986). Breeding birds and vegetation: a quantitative assessment. Urban Ecology, 9, 377-385. Goodchild, M. F. (1994). Integrating GIS and remote sensing for vegetation analysis and modeling: methodological issues. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 615-626. Goodwin, B. J., and Fahrig, L. (2002). How does landscape structure influence landscape connectivity? Oikos, 99, 552-570. Grimm, N. B., Grove, J. M., Pickett, S. T. A., and Redman, C. L. (2000). Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience, 50, 571-584. Grix, J. (2004). The Foundation of Research (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Grubb, T. C. J., and Doherty, P. F. J. (1999). On home-range gap-crossing. Auk, 116, 618-628. Gunderson, L. H., and Holling, C. S. (Eds.). (2002). Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, D.C., USA: Island Press. Hanski, I. (1999). Habitat connectivity, habitat continuity, and metapopulations in dynamic landscapes. Oikos, 87, 209-219. Harris, R. J., and Reed, J. M. (2002). Behavioral barriers to non-migratory movement of birds. Ann. Zool. Fennici, 39, 275 - 290. Harrison, C., Burgess, J., Millward, A., and Dawe, G. (1995). Accessible natural greensapce in towns and cities. A review of appropriate size and distance criteria. English Nature, 153, 1-49, Hartje, V., Klaphake, A., and Schliep, R. (2003). The International Debate on the Ecosystem Approach. Critical Review, International Actors, Obstacles and Challenges. Bonn: BfN-Scripten. Hedblom, M., and Söderström, B. (2010). Landscape effects on birds in urban woodlands: an analysis of 34 Swedish cities. Journal of Biogeography, 37(7), 1302-1316. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02299.x Hinsley, S. A. (2000). The costs of multiple patch use by birds. Landscape Ecology, 15(8), 765-775. Hodgson, P., French, K., and Major, R. E. (2007). Avian movement across abrupt ecological edges: Differential responses to housing density in an urban matrix. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79(3-4), 266-272. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2006.02.012. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1-23. Holling, C. S. (1996). Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. In P. Schulze (Ed.), Engineering within ecological constraints. Wasington, D.C., USA: Island Press. Holling, C. S. (2001). Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems, 4(5), 390-405. Holmes, R. J., and Froud-Williams, R. J. (2005). Post-dispersal weed seed predation by avian and non-avian predators. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment(105), 23-27. Hougner, C., Colding, J., and Soderqvist, T. (2006). Economic valuation of seed dispersal service in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden. Ecological Economics, 59, 364-374. Huth, N., and Possingham, H. P. (2011). Basic ecological theory can inform habitat restoration for woodland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(2), 293-300. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01936.x. Ibrahim, K. M., Nichols, R. A., and Hewitt, G. M. (1995). Spatial patterns of genetic variation generated by different forms of dispersal during range expansion. Heredity, 77, 282-291. James, P., Tzoulas, K., Adams, M. D., Barber, A., Box, J., Breuste, J., et al. (2009). Towards an integrated understanding of green space in the European built environment. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8(2), 65-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2009.02.001. Janssen, M. A., Bodin, Ö., Anderies, J. M., Elmqvist, T., Ernstson, H., McAllister, R. R. J., et al. (2006). Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 15 (Online). Jarvis, P. J., and Young, C. H. (2005). The Mapping of Urban Habitat and its Evaluation. A discussion Paper prepared for the Urban Forum of the United Kingdom Man and the Biosphere Programme Urban habitat mapping: UNESCO, MAB. Jenness, J. (2011). Conefor Inputs Tool for ArcGIS 9.x: Jenness Enterprise. Retrieved from Jim, C. Y. (2011). Holistic research agenda for sustainable management and conservation of urban woodlands. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4), 375-379. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.01.006 Jim, C. Y., and Chen, S. S. (2008). Assessing Natural and Cultural Determinants of Urban forest Quality in Nanjing (China). Physical Geography, 29(5), 455-473. Jim, C. Y., and Chen, W. Y. (2009). Ecosystem services and valuation of urban forests in China. Cities, 26(4), 187-194. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2009.03.003 Johnson, M. D., Kellerman, J. L., and Stercho, A. M. (2010). Pest reduction services by birds in shade and sun coffee in Jamaica. Animal Conservation, 13, 140-147. Johnston, M., and Percival, G. (Eds.). (2011). Trees people and the built environment. Proceedings of the Ubran Trees Research Conference 13-14 April 2011. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission. Joly, P., Morand, C., and Cohas, A. (2003). Habitat fragmentation and amphibian conservation: building a tool for assessing landscape matrix connectivity. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 326, 132-139. Jones, A., Hillsdon, M., and Coombes, E. (2009). Greenspace access, use, and physical activity: understanding the effects of area deprivation. Preventive Medicine, 49(6), 500-505. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.10.012 Jordan, F., Baldi, A., Orci, K.M., Rascz, I., Varga, Z. (2003). Characterizing the importance of habitat patches and corridors in maintaining the landscape connectivity of a Pholidoptera transsyvanica (Orthoptera) metapopulation. Landscape Ecology, 18, 83-92. Kay, B. J., Twigg, L. E., Korn, T. J., and Nicol, H. I. (1994). The use of artificial perches to increase predation on house mice (Mus domesticus) by raptors. Wildlife Research, 21, 95-106. Kendal, D., Williams, N. S. G., and Williams, K. J. H. (2012). Drivers of diversity and tree cover in gardens, parks and streetscapes in an Australian city. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 11(3), 257-265. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2012.03.005 Kotliar, N., and Wiens, J. A. (1990). Multiple scales of patchiness and patch structure: a hierarchical framework for the study of hetergeneity. Oikos, 59, 253-260. Krause, A. E., Frank, K. A., Mason, D. M., Ulanowicz, R. E., and Taylor, W. W. (2003). Compartments revealed in food-web structure. Nature, 426, 232-285. Kremen, C., Williams, N. M., Aizen, M. A., Gemmill-Herren, B., LeBuhn, G., Minckley, R., et al. (2007). Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. Ecol Lett, 10(4), 299-314. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01018.x Kunick, W. (1987). Woody vegetation in settlements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14, 57-78. Kunz, T. H., de Torrez, B., Bauer, D., Lobova, T., and Flemin, T. H. (2011). Ecosystem services provided by bats. New York Academy of Sciences, 1223, 1-38. Lachmund, J. (2004). Mapping Urban Nature: Bio-Ecological Expertise and Urban Planning. In E. Kurz-Milcke andG. Gigerenzer (Eds.), Experts in Science and Society. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Landmap. (2006). Manchester Liverpool 2006 DSM 21[405000, 375000, 385002, 394998] Scale 1:10000 Retrieved 9/11, 2012, from Landry, S. M., and Chakraborty, J. (2009). Street trees and equity: evaluating the spatial distribution of an urban amenity. Environment and Planning A, 41, 2651-2670. Landscape Institute. (2009). Green infrastructure: connected and multifunctional landscapes (Vol. Position Statement). London: Landscape Institute. Landscape Institute. (2011). Local Green Infrastructure: Helping communities make the most of their landscape London: Landscape Institute. Landscape Institute. (2013). Green Infrastructure. An integrated approach to land use. London: Landscape Institute. Lesak, A. A., Radeloff, V. C., Hawbaker, T. J., Pidfeon, A. M., Gobakken, T., and Contrucci, K. (2011). Modelling forest songbird species richness using LIDAR-derived measures of forest structure. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 2823-2835. Lima, S. L., and Zollner, P. A. (1996). Towards a behavioural ecology of ecological landscapes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11, 131-135. Lindenmayer, D. B., Cunningham, R. B., and Fischer, J. (2005a). Vegetation cover thresholds and species responses. Biological Conservation, 124, 311-316. Lindenmayer, D. B., Fischer, J., and Cunningham, R. B. (2005b). Native vegetation cover thresholds associated with species responses. Biological Conservation, 124(3), 311-316. Lohr, V. I., Pearson-Mims, C. H., Tarnai, J., and Dillman, D. A. (2004). How urban residents rate and rank the benefits and problems associated with trees in cities. Journal of Arboriculture, 30(1), 28-35. Lovasi, G. S., Quinn, J. W., Neckerman, K. M., Perzanowski, M. S., and Rundle, A. (2008). Children living in areas with more street trees have lower prevalence of asthma. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(7), 647-649. doi: 10.1136/jech.2007.071894 Luck, M., and Wu, J. (2002). A gradient analysis of urban landscape pattern: a cased study from the Phoenix metropolitan region, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology, 17, 327-339. Lundberg, J., and Moberg, F. (2003). Mobile link organisms and ecosystem functioning: Implications for ecosystem resilience and management. Ecosystems, 6, 87-98. Lyytimäki, J., and Sipilä, M. (2009). Hopping on one leg – The challenge of ecosystem disservices for urban green management. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8(4), 309-315. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2009.09.003 MA. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Synthesis. Washington, D.C: Island Press. Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., Groenewegen, P. P., de Vries, S., and Spreeuwenberg, P. (2006). Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? J. Epidemiol. Community Health, 60, 587-592. MacArthur, R., and MacArthur, J. W. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42, 594-598. MacIntosh, T., Stutchbury, B. J. M., and Evans, M. L. (2011). Gap-crossing by Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) in a fragmented landscape. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 89(11), 1091-1097. doi: 10.1139/z11-090 Manning, A. D., Lindemayer, D.B., Nix, H.A. (2004). Continua and Umwelt: novel perspectives on viewing landscapes. Oikos, 104(3), 621-628. Marmot, M. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives. The Mamot Review. Executive Summary. London: The Marmot Review. Maslov, S., and Sneppen, K. (2002). Specificity and stability in topology of protein networks. Science, 296, 910-913. Matsuoka, R. H., and Kaplan, R. (2008). People needs in the urban landscape: Analysis of Landscape and Urban Planning contributions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 84, 7-19. McAlpine, C. A., and Eyre, T. J. (2002). Testing landscape metrics as indicators of habitat loss and fragmentation in continuous eucalypt forests (Queensland, Australia). Landscape Ecology, 17(8), 711-728. McDonnell, M. J. (2011). The History of Urban Ecology. In J. Niemela, J. Breuste, T. Elmquist, G. Guntenspergen, P. James andN. E. McIntyre (Eds.), Urban Ecology; patterns, processes, and application. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McElhinny, C. (2002). Forest and woodland structure as an index of biodiversity. New South Wales: National Parks & Wildlife Service. McElhinny, C., Gibbons, P., Brack, C., and Bauhus, J. (2005). Forest and woodland stand structural complexity: Its definition and measurement. Forest Ecology and Management, 218, 1-24. McGarigal, K., Cushman, S. A., Nee, M. C., and Ene, E. (2002). FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts. McGarigal, K., and Marks, B. J. (1995). Fragstats: Spatial Pattern Analysis Programme for Quantifying Landscape Structure. Vol. 2. McLennan, D., Barnes, H., Noble, M., Davies, J., Garrat, G., and Dibben, C. (2011). The English Indices of Deprivation 2010. London: Department of Communities and Local Government. Melián, C. J., and Bascompte, J. (2002). Complex networks: two ways to be robust? Ecology Letters, 5, 705-708. Merriam, G. (1984). Connectivity: a fundamental ecological characteristic of landscape pattern. In J. Brandt andP. Agger (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st international seminar on the methodology in landscape ecological research and planning. (pp. 5-15). Denmark: Roskilde University. Metzger, J. P., and Decamps, H. (1997). The structural connectivity threshold: an hypothesis in conservation biology at the landscape scale. Acta Ecologica, 18(1), 1-12. Miller, R. (n.d.). Tree care guide. A simple handbook for nurturing young trees. Forestry Commission Retrieved from$FILE/eng-treecare-guide.pdf. Minor, E. S., and Urban, D. L. (2007). Graph theory as a proxy for spatially explicit population models in conservation planning. Ecological Applications, 17(6), 1771-1782. Minor, E. S., and Urban, D. L. (2008). A graph-theory framework for evaluating landscape connectivity and conservation planning. Conservation biology, 22(2), 297-307. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00871.x Mitchell, R., and Popham, F. (2007). Greenspace, urbanity and health: relationships in England. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. J Epidemiol Community Health, 61(8), 681-683. doi: 10.1136/jech.2006.053553 Mitchell, R., and Popham, F. (2008). Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalites: an observational population study. The Lancet, 372(9650), 1655-1660. Moilanen, A., and Hanski, I. (2001). On the use of connectivity measures in spatial ecology Oikos, 95(1), 147-151. Moseley, D., Marzano, M., Chetcuti, J., and Watts, K. (2013). Green networks for people: Application of a functional approach to support the planning and management of greenspace. Landscape and Urban Planning, 116, 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.04.004 Natural England. (2010). Nature Nearby: Accessible Natural Greenspace Guidance: Natural England, NE265. Natural England. (2013). National Character Area profile: 55 Manchester Conurbation Natural England. Neel, M. (2008). Patch connectivity and genetic diversity conservation in the federally endangered and narrowly endemic plant species Astragalus albens (Fabaceae). Biological Conservation, 141(4), 938-955. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.12.031 Niemelä, J. (1999). Is there a need for a theory of urban ecology? Urban Ecosystems, 3, 57-65. Niemelä, J., Breuste, J., H., Elmqvist, T., Guntenspergen, G., James, P., and McIntyre, N., E. (2011). Urban Ecology; patterns, processes, and applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nisbet, E. K., and Zelenski, J. M. (2011). Underestimating Nearby Nature: Affective Forecasting Errors Obscure the Happy Path to Sustainability. Psychological Science, 22(9), 1101-1106. Norberg, J. (1999). Linking nature's services to ecosystems: some general ecological concepts. Ecological Economics, 29, 183-202. Norris, K., Bailey, M. J., Baker, S., Bradbury, R., Chamberlain, D. E., Duck, C., et al. (2011). Biodiversity in the Context of Ecosystem Services The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. Cambridge: UK National Ecosystem Assessment, UNEP-WCMC. Nowak, D. J., Rowntree, R. A., McPherson, E. G., Sisinni, S. M., Kerkman, E. R., and Stevena, J. C. (1996). Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover. Landscape and Urban Planning, 36, 49-57. NUFU. (2005). Trees Matter! Bringing lasting benefits to people in towns. Wolverhampton: National Urban Forestry Unit. O'Brien, L. (2005). Trees and woodlands: Nature's health service. Farnham: Forest Research. O'Brien, L., Williams, K., and Stewart, A. (2010). Urban health and health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain: A review. Melbourne: Forestry Commission. Oborny, B., Szabo, G., and Meszna, G. (2007). Survival of species in patchy landscapes: percolation in space and time. In D. Storch, P. Marquet andJ. Brown (Eds.), Scaling Biodiversity. Cambridge: University Press. Opdam, P., and Wascher, D. (2004). Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation. Biological Conservation, 117(3), 285-297. Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F., and Skvoretz, J. (2010). Node centrality in weighted networks: Generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks, 32, 245-251. Paradis, E., Baillie, S. R., Sutherland, W. J., and Gregory, R. D. (1998). Patterns of natal and breeding dispersal in birds. Journal of Animal Ecology, 67, 518-536. Parker, G. G., and Brown, M. J. (2000). Forest Canopy Stratification - Is It Useful? The American Naturalist, 155(4), 473-484. Parker, M., and MacNally, R. (2002). Habitat loss and the habitat fragmentation threshold: an experimental evaluation of impacts on richness and total abundances using grassland invertebrates. Biological Conservation, 105, 217-229. Parsons, R., Tassinary, L. G., Ulrich, R. S., Hebl, M. R., and Grossman-Alexander, M. (1998). The view from the road: Implications for stress recovery and immunization. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 113-139. Pascual-Hortal, L., and Saura, S. (2006). Comparison and development of new graph-based landscape connectivity indices: towards the priorization of habitat patches and corridors for conservation. Landscape Ecology, 21(7), 959-967. doi: 10.1007/s10980-006-0013-z Pateman, T. (2011). Regional Trends 43: Rural and urban areas: comparing lives using rural/urban classifications. London: Office for National Statistics Paton, K., Sengupta, S., and Hassna, L. (2005). Settings, systems and organisation development: the Healthy Living and Working Model. Health Promotion International, 20(1), 81-89. Pauleit, S., and Breuste, J. H. (2011). Land-Use and Surface-Cover as Urban Ecological Indicators. In J. Niemela, J. Breuste, T. Elmquist, G. Guntenspergen, P. James andN. E. McIntyre (Eds.), Urban Ecology patterns, processes, and applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pauleit, S., Jones, N., Garcia-Martin, G., Garcia-Valdecantos, J. L., Rivière, L. M., Vidal-Beaudet, L., et al. (2002). Tree establishment practice in towns and cities – Results from a European survey. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 1(2), 83-96. doi: 10.1078/1618-8667-00009 Pickett, S. T. A., Burch, W. R., Dalton, S. E., Foresman, T. W., Grove, J. M., and Rowntree, R. (1997). A conceptual framework for the study of human ecosystems in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems, 1(4), 185-199. Pickett, S. T. A., and Cadenasso, M. L. (1995). Landscape ecology: Spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Science, 331-334. Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., and Grove, J. M. (2004). Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69(4), 369-384. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.10.035 Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., Grove, J. M., Nilon, C. H., Pouyat, R. V., Zipperer, W. C., et al. (2001). Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 127-157. POST. (2008). Post Note 300: Ecological Networks. London: The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. Radford, J. Q., Bennett, A. F., and Cheers, G. J. (2005). Landscape-level thresholds of habitat cover for woodland-dependent birds. Biological Conservation, 124(3), 317-337. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.039 Rail, J. F., Darveau, M., Desrochers, A., and Huot, J. (1997). Territorial responses of boreal forest birds to habitat gaps. Condor, 99, 976-980. Red Rose Forest. (2008). Valuing Manchester's Trees: An Audit of Tree Data and Tree Cover in the City. Manchester: Red Rose Forest. Red Rose Forest. (2012). About Red Rose Forest Retrieved 22nd March, 2012, from Rees, W. E. (2003). Understanding Urban Ecosystems: An Ecological Economics Perspective. In C. N. a. K. H. Alan Berkowitz (Ed.), Understanding Urban Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag. Rees, W. E., and Wackernagel, M. (1996). Urban ecological footprints: Why cities cannot be sustainable and why they are a key to sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 16, 223-248. Reijnen, R., Foppen, R., and Veenbaas, G. (1997). Disturbance by traffic of breeding birds: evaluation of the effect and considerations in planning and managing road corridors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 567-581. Rhodes, M., Wardell-Jonson, G. W., Rhodes, M. P., and Raymond, B. (2006). Applying Network Analysis to the Conservation of Habitat Trees in Urban Environemnts: a Case Study from Brisbane, Australia. Conservation Biology, 20(3), 861-870. Ribeiro, R., Carretero, M. A., Sillero, N., Alarcos, G., Ortiz-Santaliestra, M., Lizana, M., et al. (2011). The pond network: can structural connectivity reflect on (amphibian) biodiversity patterns? Landscape Ecology, 26(5), 673-682. doi: 10.1007/s10980-011-9592-4 Ricotta, C., Stanisci, A., Avena, G. C., and Blasi, C. (2000). Quantifying the network connectivity of landscape mosaics: a graph-theoretical approach. Community Ecology, 1(1), 89-94. Robertson, O. J., and Radford, J. Q. (2009). Gap-crossing decisions of forest birds in a fragmented landscape. Austral Ecology. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.01945.x Rodríguez , A., Andrén, H., and Jansson, G. (2001). Habitat-mediated predation risk and decision making of small birds at forest edges. Oikos, 95, 383 - 396. Rosenzweig, M. L. (1995). Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge: New York. Rotenberry, J. Y., and Wiens, J. A. (1980). Habitat structure, patchiness, and avian communities in North American steppe vegetation: A multivariate analysis. Ecology, 61, 1228-1250. Salford City Council. (2006). Unitary Development Plan 2004-2016. Salford City Council. (2007). Landscape Character Assessment. Salford City Council. (2008a). Salford City Council: Broughton Ward Profile. Salford City Council. Salford City Council. (2008b). Salford City Council: Irwell Riverside Ward Profile. Salford City Council. Salford City Council. (2008c). Salford City Council: Kersal Ward Profile. Salford City Council. Salford City Council. (2009). Environment. Adopted Unitary Development Plan Retrieved 14 June 2012, from Saura, S., Estreguil, C., Mouton, C., and Rodríguez-Freire, M. (2011). Network analysis to assess landscape connectivity trends: Application to European forests (1990–2000). Ecological Indicators, 11(2), 407-416. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.06.011 Saura, S., and Pascual-Hortal, L. (2007a). Conefor Sensinode 2.2. User's Manual: Univeristy of Lleida. Saura, S., and Pascual-Hortal, L. (2007b). A new habitat availability index to integrate connectivity in landscape conservation planning: Comparison with existing indices and application to a case study. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83, 91-103. Saura, S., and Torne, J. (2009). Conefor Sensinode 2.2: A software package for quantifying the importance of habitat patches for landscape connectivity. Environmental Modelling and Software, 24, 135-139. Savard, J.-P. L., Clergeau, P., and Mennechez, G. (2000). Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystems. Landscape and Urban Planning, 48, 131-142. Schroeder, R. L., Cable, T. T., and Haire, S. L. (1992). Wildlife species richness in shelterbelts: test of a habitat model. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 20, 264-273. Smith, A., P. (1973). Stratification of Temperate and Tropical Forests. The American Naturalist, 107(957), 671-683. Smith, M. J., Forbes, G.J., and Betts, M. G. (2013). Landscape configuration influences gap-crossing decisions of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Biological Conservation, 168, 176-183 Soares, A. L., Rego, F. C., McPherson, E. G., Simpson, J. R., Peper, P. J., and Xiao, Q. (2011). Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon, Portugal. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 10(2), 69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2010.12.001 St. Clair, C. C., Belisle, M., Desrochers, A., and Hannon, S. (1998). Winter responses of forest birds to habitat corridors and gaps. Retrieved November, 29th, 2012, from Stauffer, D., and Aharony, A. (1994). Introduction to Percolation Theory. London: Taylor & Francis. Strogatz, S. H. (2001). Exploring complex networks. Nature, 410, 268-276. Swift, T. L., and Hannon, S. J. (2010). Critical thresholds associated with habitat loss: a review of the concepts, evidence, and applications. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 85(1), 35-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00093.x Taylor, P. D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K., and Merriam, G. (1993). Connectivity is a vital element of landscape strucuture. Oikos, 68(3), 571-573. Taylor, W. C., Floyd, M. F., Whitt-Glover, M. C., and Brooks, J. (2007). Environmental Justice: A Framework for Collaboration Between the Public Health and Parks and Recreation Fields to Study Disparities in Physical Activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4(1), 50-63. TDAG. (2012). Trees in the Townscape. A Guides for Decision Makers: Tree Design and Action Group. TEEB. (2010a). Chapter 2. Biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services J. M. Salles (Ed.) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity TEEB. (2010b). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. Theobald, D. M. (2006). Exploring the functional connectivity of landscapes using landscape networks. In K. R. Crooks andM. Sanjayan (Eds.), Connectivity Conservation (pp. 416-443). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thomas, D. R. (2003). A general inductive approach for qualitative data. Auckland: School of Population Health, University of Auckland. Tischendorf, L., and Fahrig, L. (2000a). How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landscape Ecology, 15, 633-641. Tischendorf, L., and Fahrig, L. (2000b). On the usage and measurement of landscape connectivity. Oikos, 90, 7-19. Tischendorf, L., and Fahrig, L. (2001). On the use of connectivity measures in spatial ecology. A reply. Oikos, 95(1), 152 - 155. Tregay, R. (1979). Urban Woodlands. In I. C. Laurie (Ed.), Nature in Cities (pp. 297-295). New York: Wiley. Tremblay, M. A., and St. Clair, C. C. (2009). Factors affecting the permeability of transportation and riparian corridors to the movements of songbirds in an urban landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 1314-1322. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01717.x. Tremblay, M. A., and St. Clair, C. C. (2011). Permeability of a heterogeneous urban landscape to the movements of forest songbirds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(3), 679-688. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01978.x. Tudge, C. (2000). The Variety of Life. A survey and celebration of all the creatures that have ever lived. New York: Oxford University Press. Turner, M. G. (1989). Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process. Annual Review of Ecological Systems, 20, 171-197. Turner, M. G. (1990). Spatial and temporal analysis of landscape patterns. Landscape Ecology, 4(1), 21-30. Tyrväinen, L., Pauleit, S., Seeland, K., and de Vries, S. (2005). Benefits and Uses of Urban Forests and Trees. In C. Konijnendijk, K. Nilsson, T. B. Randrup andJ. Schipperijn (Eds.), Urban Forests and Trees. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer . Tzoulas, K., and James, P. (2010). Peoples’ use of, and concerns about, green space networks: A case study of Birchwood, Warrington New Town, UK. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9(2), 121-128. doi: doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2009.12.001. Tzoulas, K., Korpela, K., Venn, S., Yli-Pelkonen, V., Kázmierczak, A., Niemela, J., et al. (2007). Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 81, 167-178. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.02.001. Ulrich, R. S. (1986). Human responses to vegetation and landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 13, 29-44. United Nations. (2008). World Urbanization Prospects:The 2007 Revision. Executive Summery. United Nations. (2012). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs Urban, D. L., and Keitt, T. H. (2001). Landscape Connectivity: a graph-theoretic perspective. Ecology, 82(5), 1205-1218. Urban, D. L., Minor, E. S., Treml, E. A., and Schick, R. S. (2009). Graph models of habitat mosaics. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review]. Ecol Lett, 12(3), 260-273. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01271.x. Uuemaa, E., Antrop, M., Roosaare, J., Marja, R., and Mander, U. (2009). Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Thier Use in Landscape Research. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 3, 5-28. Van Dyck, H., and Baguette, M. (2005). Dispersal behaviour in fragmented landscapes: routine or special movements? Basic and Applied Ecology, 6, 535-545. Van Herzele, A., De Clercq, E. M., and Wiedemann, T. (2005). Strategic planning for new woodlands in the urban periphery: through the lens of social inclusiveness. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 3(3-4), 177-188. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2005.01.002. Van Langevelde, F., and Van der Knaap, W. G. M. (1998). Comparing connectivity in landscape networks. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 25, 849-863. Vierling, K. Y., Vierling, L. A., Gould, W. A., Martinuzzi, S., and Clawges, R. M. (2008). Lidar: shedding new light on habitat characterisation and modelling. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 90-98. von Uexküll, J. (1926). Theoretical biology. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., LTD. Walker, B., Gunderson, L., Kinzig, A., Folke, C., Carpenter, S., and Schultz, L. (2006a). A Handful of Heuristics and Some Propositions for Understanding Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 13 (online). Retrieved 01/09/2013, from Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., and Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5. Walker, B., Kinzig, A., and Langridge, J. (1999). Plant Attribute Diversity, Resilience, and Ecosystem Function: The Nature and Significance of Dominant and Minor Species. Ecosystems, 2, 95-113. Walker, B. H., Anderies, J. M., Kinzig, A. P., and Ryan, P. (2006b). Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue. Ecology and Society, 11(1). Walker, G., Fairburn, J., Smith, G., and Mitchell, G. (2003). Environmental Quality and Social Deprivation. R&D Technical Report E2-067/1/TR, Environment Agency, London. Walz, U. (2011). Landscape Structure, Landscape Metrics and Biodiversity. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 5(3), 5-35. Wasserman, S., and Faust, K. (1994). Social Network Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Watson, D. F., and Philip, G. M. (1985). A refinement of inverse distance weighted interpolation. Geo-Processing, 2, 315-327. Wenny, D. G., DeVault, T. L., Johnson, M. D., Kelly, D., Sekercioglu, C. H., Tomback, D. F., et al. (2011). The need to quantify ecosystem services provided by birds. The Auk, 128(1), 1-14. Whelan, C. J., Wenny, D. G., and Marquis, R. J. (2008). Ecosystem services provided by birds. New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 25-60. WHO. (1998). City Health Profiles: A review of progress. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 1. WHO. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being. A report of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessmet. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Wiens, J. A. (1976). Population responses to patchy environments. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 7, 81-120. Wiens, J. A. (1989). Spatial Scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3, 385-397. Williams, M. S., Bechtold, W. A., and LaBau, V. J. (1994). Five Instruments for Measuring Tree Height: An Evaluation. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 18, 76-82. Winterman, D. (2013). The surprising uses for birdsong. BBC News Magazine Retrieved 01/08/2013, 2013, from With, K. A., Gardner, R. H., and Turner, M. G. (1997). Landscape connectivity and population distributions in heterogenous environments. Oikos, 78, 151-169. With, K. A., Pavuk, D. M., Worchuck, J. L., Oates, R. K., and Fisher, J. L. (2002). Threshold effects of landscape structure on biological control in agroecosystems. Ecological Applications, 12, 52-65. Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J., and Newell, J. P. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities 'just green enough.' Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 234-244. Wu, J. (2014). Urban ecology and sustainability: The state-of-the-science and future directions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 209-221. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.018. Xiao, H., and Ji, W. (2007). Relating landscape characteristics to non-point pollution in mine waste-located watersheds using geospatial techniques. Journal of Environmental Management, 82, 111-119. Yang, J., McBride, J., Zhou, J., and Sun, Z. (2005). The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 3(2), 65-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2004.09.001. Zetterberg, A., Mörtberg, U. M., and Balfors, B. (2010). Making graph theory operational for landscape ecological assessments, planning, and design. Landscape and Urban Planning, 95(4), 181-191. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.01.002. Zhou, X., and Kim, J. (2013). Social disparities in tree canopy and park accessibility: A case study of six cities in Illinois using GIS and remote sensing. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(1), 88-97. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2012.11.004. Zolliner, P. A., and Lima, S. L. (1999). Search Strategies for Landscape-Level Interpatch Movements. Ecology, 80, 1019-1030. Zollner, P. A., and Lima, S. L. (2005). Behavioural tradeoffs when dispersing across a patchy landscape. Oikos, 108, 219 - 230.

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)


Downloads per month over past year