Evaluating the success of the Mersey Basin Campaign and its impact on Toxteth
Gunn, Joanne 2015, Evaluating the success of the Mersey Basin Campaign and its impact on Toxteth , MSc by research thesis, University of Salford.
Download (2MB) | Preview
The Mersey Basin Campaign was established in 1985 to improve water quality within the Mersey Catchment at a cost of £2.5bn, and invest £1.5bn in regeneration. This thesis assesses how successful the MBC has been in improving water quality across the Mersey Catchment as well as regenerating one of Liverpool’s most deprived areas, Toxteth. There is little literature which has reviewed the Mersey Basin Campaign since its termination in 2010; this thesis aims to update the literature. To evaluate water quality, data was obtained from 30 field sites within an Environment Agency data set spanning ten years. Water quality was assessed on water chemistry, biology, nitrates and phosphates content. The Environment Agency used a grading system whereby 1 is a “very good” river with a high population of species, and 6 describes a “bad” river which only supports limited pollution-tolerant macroinvertebrates. The average Chemistry grade improved from 3.3 in 1999 to 2.73 in 2009. Average biological ranking improved from 4.24 in 2002 to 3.87 in 2009. Average nitrates ranking improved from 3.43 in 2000 to 3.3 in 2009, and phosphates improved from 4.93 in 2000 to 4.37 in 2009. Average statistics across 30 field sites improved from 1999-2009 but not to MBC aims of achieving ‘good’ or higher status. To assess improvements in deprived inner city areas, Liverpool City Council gathered data for each ward across Merseyside in 2013 and two wards, Riverside and Princes Park were selected. The data analysed shows the poorest ward, Princes Park has an average household income 67% of the National Average, unemployment 150% higher than the National Average and deprivation of 93.7%. As a result Toxteth has high percentages of child poverty. The MBC has improved water quality across the 30 field sites but not to a “fair” standard, nor has regeneration undertaken by the MBC sufficiently improved Toxteth.
|Item Type:||Thesis (MSc by research)|
|Themes:||Built and Human Environment
Subjects outside of the University Themes
|Schools:||Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences|
|Funders:||Non funded research|
|Depositing User:||Joanne Gunn|
|Date Deposited:||09 Nov 2015 16:34|
|Last Modified:||05 Apr 2016 19:36|
|References:||Alvaro, N.V., Wallenstein, F.F.M.M., Neto, A.I., Nogueira, E.M., Ferreira, J., Santos, C.I., Amaral, A.F. (2008). The use of digital photography for the deﬁnition of coastal biotopes in Azores. Hydrobiologia, 596, 143–152. Amin, A. (2002). Ethnicity and the Multicultural City: Living with Diversity. Report for the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions and the ESRC Cities Initiative. Anelay, C. (2014). Project reflections: The Florence Institute, Toxteth, Liverpool. Journal of Building Survey, Appraisal & Valuation, 3(2), 139-151. APEM. (2007). Manchester Ship Canal; Strategic Review of Fish Populations. Ref: 410039. Atlantic Gateway. (2012). Retrieved 19th of January, 2015 from http://www.atlanticgateway.co.uk/ Bannister, N., Mant, J., Janes, M. (2005). A Review of Catchment Scale River Restoration Projects in the UK: Compiled by the River Restoration Centre, Report December 2005. BBC. (2004). Retrieved 10th of May 2015 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/3644164.stm. BBC. (August 2011). Retrieved 15th of March 2015 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14710478 Bitelli, G., Gatta, G., Girelli, V.A., Vittuari, L., Zanutta, A. (2011). Integrated Methodologies for the 3D Survey and the Structural Monitoring of Industrial Archaeology: The Case of the Casalecchio di Reno Sluice, Italy. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Geophysics, Volume 2011, Article ID 874347, 8 pages, doi:10.1155/2011/874347. Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., Goldstein, H., Martin, C. (2003). Are class size differences related to pupils’ educational progress and classroom processes? Findings from the Institute of Education Class Size Study of children aged 5-7 Years. Institute of Education, University of London, March 2003. Borja, A. (2006). The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. Continental Shelf Research, 25(14), 1768–1783. Bourassa, S.C., Hoesli, M.E., Sun, J. (2003). What’s in a view? Boyko, C.T., Gaterell, M.R., Barber, A.R.G., Brown, J., Bryson, J.R., Butler, D., Caputo, S., Caserio, M., Coles, R., Cooper, R., Davies, G., Farmani, R., Hale, J., Hales, C., Hewitt, N., Hunt, D.V.L., Jankovic, L., Jefferson, I., Leach, J.M., Lombardi, D.R., MacKenzie, A. R., Memone, F.A., Pugh, T.A.M., Sadler, J.P., Weingaertner, C., Whyatt, D., Rogers, C.D.F. (2011). Benchmarking sustainability in cities: The role of indicators and future scenarios. Global Environmental Change, doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.004. Brewer, M. October 2011. Child and working-age poverty from 2010 to 2020. Bridges, L. (1981). Keeping the lid on: British urban social policy, 1975-81. Race & Class, 23(2-3), 171-185. Broody, M. (1955). The Social Adjustment of Chinese Immigrants in Liverpool. The Sociological Review, 3(1), 65-75. Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(1), 129–138. Christie, M., Rayment, M. (2012). An economic assessment of the ecosystem service benefits derived from the SSSI biodiversity conservation policy in England and Wales. Ecosystem Services 1.1, 70-84. Cooper, P. (1985). Competing Explanations of the Merseyside Riots of 1981. British Journal of Criminology, 25(1), p60. Craig, P.J., Morton, S.F. (1976). Mercury in Mersey estuary sediments and the analytical procedure for total mercury. Letters to Nature, 261, 125-126. Daramola-Martin, A. (2009). Liverpool One and the transformation of a city: Place branding, marketing and the catalytic effects of regeneration and culture on repositioning Liverpool. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 5, p301-311 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. (March 2010). The Development of the Water Industry in England and Wales. Department of Education. (2014). Retrieved 15th of March 2015 from http://home.rm.com/SchoolFinder/ShowSchools.aspx?l=Toxteth,Liverpool&t=sec Dicken, P. (2003). Global Shift: Reshaping the Global Economic Map in the 21st Century. P1. Entwistle, N., Milan, D., Heritage, G. (2010). Biotope mapping using combined LiDAR and acoustic Doppler profiler survey Eyler, J.M. (2001). The changing assessments of John Snow’s and William Farr’s cholera studies. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin, 46(4), 225-232. Farrer W., Brownbill, J. 1907. Townships: Toxteth Park. A History of the County of Lancaster, 3, p40-45. Fieldhouse, K. (1984). International Garden Festival 1984. Landscape Design, 148, 12-75. Friberg, N., Kronvang, B., Hansen, H.O., Svendsen, L.M. (1998). Long-term, habitat-speciﬁc response of a macroinvertebrate community to river restoration. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 8, 87–99. Frost, D. (1996). Racism and social segregation: Settlement patterns of West African seamen in Liverpool since the nineteenth century. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 22(1), 85-95. Galbraith, J.K., Kum, H. (2005). Estimating the Inequality of Houehold Incomes: A statistical approach to the creation of a dense and consistent global data set. Review of Income and Wealth, 51(1), 115-143. Garcia, B., Melville, R., & Cox, T. (2010). Creating an impact: Liverpool's experience as European capital of culture. Impacts 08. Garrod, G., Willis, K. (1994). An economic estimate of the effect of a waterside location on property values. Environmental and Resource Economics, 4(2), 209-217. Gregory, C., Brierley, G., Le Heron, R. (2011). Governance Spaces for Sustainable River Management. Geography Compass, 5(4), 182–199. Gov.uk. November 2014. Retrieved 28th of March 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/apply-free-school-meals The Guardian. (2008). Liverpool culture venues welcome 15m visitors in 2008. Retrieved 19th of January, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2008/dec/11/liverpool-capital-culture The Guardian. (2011). Toxteth revisited, 30 years after the riots. Retrieved 19th of January, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/jul/03/toxteth-liverpool-riot-30-years The Guardian. (2012). MP demands inquiry after BBC hires just 24 local people at Salford HQ. Retrieved 19th of January, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/jan/18/mp-inquiry-bbc-salford The Guardian. (2014). Earth has lost half of its wildlife in the past 40 years, says WWF. Retrieved 15th March 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ 2014/sep/29/earth-lost-50-wildlife-in-40-years-ww The Guardian. (2014b). The Liverpool locals who took control of their long-neglected streets. Retrieved 21st of May 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/nov/27/liverpool-locals-took-control-long-neglected-streets Hassan, J.A. (1985). The Growth and Impact of the British Water Industry in the Nineteenth Century. The Economic History Review, 38(4), 531-547. Herbert, D.T. (1985). Urban Deprivation: definition, Measurement and Spatial Qualities. The Geographical Journal, 141(3), 362-372. Heritage Lottery Fund. 2015. Retrieved 10th of May 2015 from http://www.hlf.org.uk/. Jones, P.D. (2000). The Mersey Estuary – Back from the dead? Solving a 150 year old problem. Water and Environment Journal, 14(2), 124-130. Jones, P.D. (2006). Water quality and fisheries in the Mersey Estuary, England: A historical perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 53(1-4), 144-154. Jones, P., Wilks-Heeg, S. (2004). Capitalising Culture: Liverpool 2008. Local Economy, 19(4), 341-360. Jordan, A. (1993). Integrated pollution control and the evolving style and structure of environmental regulation in the UK. Environmental Politics, 2(3), 405-427. Kallis, G., Butler, D. (2001). The EU Water Framework Directive: measures and implications. Water Policy, 3(2), 125-142. Kasahara, T., Hill, A.R. (2008). Modelling the effects of lowland stream restoration projects on stream–subsurface water exchange. Ecological Engineering, 32(4), 310–319. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B.P., Wilkinson, R,G. (1999). Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation. Social Science & Medicine, 48(6), 719-731. Keeble, D. (1978). Industrial Decline in the Inner City and Conurbation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 3(1), 101-114. Klein, L. 1962. Causes and Effects: River Pollution, Volume 2. P13. Kondolf, G. M. (1998). Lessons learned from river restoration projects in California. Aquatic Conservation, 8, 39–52. Lampard, E. E. (1973). The urbanizing world. The Victorian city: images and realities, 3-58. Landres, P.B., Verner, J., Thomas, J.W. 1988. Ecological Uses of Vertebrate Indicator Species: A Critique. Conservation Biology, 2(4), 316-328. Langston, W.J. (1986). Metals in Sediments and benthic Organisms in the Mersey Estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 23(2), 239-261. Liverpool City Council. (2013). Data retrieved from http://liverpool.gov.uk/council/key-statistics-and-data/ward-profiles/ward-map/. Liverpool Echo. (2006). Retrieved 10th May from http://libcom.org/news/article.php/toxteth-report-promises-240606. Liverpool Echo. (2011). Toxteth's toxic legacy: Liverpool is still feeling the impact of the Toxteth riots. Retrieved 19th of January 2015 from http://www.independent.co.uk/life- style/history/toxteths-toxic-legacy-liverpool-is-still-feeling-the-impact-of-the-toxteth-riots-2305044.html Liverpool Echo. (2015). Granby 4 Streets housing project appeals for help with building materials. Retrieved 21st of May 2015 from http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/granby-4-streets-housing-project-8942786 Liverpool-ONE. (2015). Data retrieved 10th May 2015 from http://www.liverpool-one.com/media.aspx Lombardi, D. R., Porter, L., Barber, A., Rogers, C. D. (2011). Conceptualising sustainability in UK urban regeneration: a discursive formation. Urban Studies, 48(2), 273-296. Machin, S., McNally, S. (2006). Education and child poverty. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.(http://www.jrf.org.uk/publications/education-andchildpoverty literature-review). Mason, C.F., Macdonald, S.M. (2009). Otters: Ecology and Conservation, p135. Mc Callister, D.L., Logan, T.J. (1978). Phosphate adsorption-desorption characteristics of soils and bottom sediments in the Maumee River basin of Ohio. Journal of Environmental Quality, 7(1), 87-92. McLennan, D., Barnes, H., Noble, M., Davies, J., Garratt, E. Dibben, C. 2011. The English Indices of Deprivation 2010. Department for Communities and Local Government. Meador, M. R., Goldstein, R. M. (2003). Assessing water quality at large geographic scales: relations among land use, water physicochemistry, riparian condition, and fish community structure. Environmental Management, 31(4), p504-517. Meegan, R. (2003). Urban Regeneration, Politics and Social Cohesion: The Liverpool Case. Reinventing the City?: Liverpool in Comparative Perspective, p53-79. Mermillod‐Blondin, F., Creuzé des Châtelliers, M., Marmonier, P., & Dole‐Olivier, M. J. (2000). Distribution of solutes, microbes and invertebrates in river sediments along a riffle‐pool‐riffle sequence. Freshwater Biology, 44(2), 255-269. Merritt, S. (1997) Introduction to the Economics of Water Resources: an international perspective (London, UCL Press). Mersey Basin Campaign. (2015). Retrieved 10th May 2015 from http://www.merseybasin.org.uk/. Natural England. (2014). Retrieved from http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/ Nolan, P.A. & Guthrie, N. (1998). River rehabilitation in an urban environment: examples from the Mersey Basin, North West England. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 8, 685–700 Office for National Statistics. (2013). Retrieved 10th May 2015 from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/170-years-of-industry/170-years-of-industrial-changeponent.html. Parker, D. (2001). The Sum of Our Parts: Mixed-heritage Asian Americans. Mixed Heritage Asian Americans, p185-196. Parkinson, M. (1989). The Thatcher Government’s Urban Policy: a Review. Puckett, L. J. (1995). Identifying the major sources of nutrient water pollution. Environmental Science & Technology, 29(9), 408-414. Raco, M. (2003). Remaking Place and Securitising Space: Urban Regeneration and the Strategies, Tactics and Practices of Policing in the UK. Urban Studies, 40(9), 1869-1887. Ridgway, J., Shimmield, G. (2002). Estuaries as Repositories of Historical Contamination and their Impact on Shelf Seas. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 55, 903–928. Rodríguez, J.F. Garcia, M.H., Bombardelli, F.A., Guzmán, J.M., Rhoads, B.L., Herricks, D. (2000). Naturalisation of urban streams using in-channel structures. Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management – ASCE July 30 - August 2, 2000, Hyatt Regency, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Rousseau, M. (2009). Re-imaging the City Centre for the Middle Classes: Regeneration, Gentrification and Symbolic Policies in ‘Loser Cities’. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(3), 770–788. Shafik, N. (1994). Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis. Oxford Economic Papers New Series: Special Issue on Environmental economics, 46, 757-773. Sharp, R., Maclean, N. (2010). Going fishing: recent trends in recreational angling. Silent Summer: The State of Wildlife in Britain and Ireland, 107, p110. Sheail, J. (1988). River regulation in the United Kingdom: An historical perspective. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management, 2(3), 221–232. Struthers, W.A.K. (1997). From Manchester Docks to Salford Quays: Ten Years of Environmental Improvements in the Mersey Basin Campaign. Water and Environment Journal, 11(1), 1-7. Sukopp, H., Weiler, S. (1988). Biotope mapping and nature conservation strategies in urban areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning, 15, 39–58. Takano, T., Nakamura, K., Watanabe, M. (2002). Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces. Journal of Epidemiol Community Health. 56, 913-918. Taylor, A.F., Wiley, A., Kuo, F.E., Sullivan, W.C. (1998). Growing Up in the Inner City: Green Spaces as Places to Grow. Environment and Behaviour, 30(1), 3-27. The National Archives. (1974). Retrieved 10th of May from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/40. UkCrimeStats.com. (February 2014 to January 2015). Retrieved 15th of March 2015 from http://www.ukcrimestats.com/Constituency/66066 United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Retrieved 28th of March 2015 from http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms57.cfm Waddington, D., King, M. (2009). Identifying common causes of UK and French riots occurring since the 1980s. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48(3), 245-256. Wakida, F.T., Lerner, D.N. 2005. Non-agricultural sources of groundwater nitrate: a review and case study. Water Research, 39(1), 3–16 Webber, R., T. Butler. (2007). Classifying Pupils by Where They Live: How Well Does this Predict Variations in their GCSE Results? Urban Studies 44(7), 1229-53. Wood, R. Handley, J. (1999). Urban Waterfront Regeneration in the Mersey Basin, North West England. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 42(4), 565-580. Wood, R. Handley, J., Kidd, S. (1999). Sustainable Development and Institutional Design: The Example of the Mersey Basin Campaign. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 42(3), 341-354.|
Actions (login required)
|Edit record (repository staff only)|