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Phylogenetic relationships of the New World titi monkeys (Callicebus) : first appraisal of taxonomy based on molecular evidence

Byrne, H, Rylands, AB, Carneiro, JC, Lynch Alfaro, JW, Bertuol, F, da Silva, MNF, Messias, M, Groves, CP, Mittermeier, RA, Farias, I, Hrbek, T, Schneider, H, Sampaio, I and Boubli, JP 2016, 'Phylogenetic relationships of the New World titi monkeys (Callicebus) : first appraisal of taxonomy based on molecular evidence' , Frontiers in Zoology, 13 (10) .

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Abstract

Background Titi monkeys, Callicebus, comprise the most species-rich primate genus—34 species are currently recognised, five of them described since 2005. The lack of molecular data for titi monkeys has meant that little is known of their phylogenetic relationships and divergence times. To clarify their evolutionary history, we assembled a large molecular dataset by sequencing 20 nuclear and two mitochondrial loci for 15 species, including representatives from all recognised species groups. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using concatenated maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, allowing us to evaluate the current taxonomic hypothesis for the genus. Results Our results show four distinct Callicebus clades, for the most part concordant with the currently recognised morphological species-groups—the torquatus group, the personatus group, the donacophilus group, and the moloch group. The cupreus and moloch groups are not monophyletic, and all species of the formerly recognized cupreus group are reassigned to the moloch group. Two of the major divergence events are dated to the Miocene. The torquatus group, the oldest radiation, diverged c. 11 Ma; and the Atlantic forest personatus group split from the ancestor of all donacophilus and moloch species at 9–8 Ma. There is little molecular evidence for the separation of Callicebus caligatus and C. dubius, and we suggest that C. dubius should be considered a junior synonym of a polymorphic C. caligatus. Conclusions Considering molecular, morphological and biogeographic evidence, we propose a new genus level taxonomy for titi monkeys: Cheracebus n. gen. in the Orinoco, Negro and upper Amazon basins (torquatus group), Callicebus Thomas, 1903, in the Atlantic Forest (personatus group), and Plecturocebus n. gen. in the Amazon basin and Chaco region (donacophilus and moloch groups).

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Ecosystems and Environment Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Frontiers in Zoology
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1742-9994
Related URLs:
Funders: Brazilian Government Science and TEchnology Council
Depositing User: WM Taylor
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2016 11:30
Last Modified: 30 Mar 2016 08:01
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/37971

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