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Mineral and biological contamination of soil and Capsicum annuumirrigated with recycled domestic wastewater

Almuktar, Suhad and Scholz, Miklas 2016, 'Mineral and biological contamination of soil and Capsicum annuumirrigated with recycled domestic wastewater' , Agricultural Water Management, 167 , pp. 95-109.

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Abstract

Due to water scarcity in many arid countries, there is considerable interest in recycling wastewaterstreams such as treated urban wastewater for irrigation in the agricultural sector. The aim of this study isto assess the contamination of soil and Capsicum annuum (grown in pots) irrigated by domestic wastew-aters treated by different wetland types between September 2013 and September 2014. The objectiveswere to assess (a) the suitability of the irrigation water for growth when using recycled wastewatercontaminated by trace minerals and pathogens, (b) the impact of differently treated wastewaters on soiland fruits as a function of the wetland type, and (c) the marketable yield of the harvest as a functionof mineral and biological contamination risk. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia–nitrogen, potas-sium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the thresholds. Highcontamination levels by total coliforms, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. were detected. No mineralcontamination was observed in the soils due to irrigation with treated wastewater. Results showed thatslight to moderate zinc contamination was detected in some vegetables. Potassium accumulation in theyield showed the highest values followed by zinc. In contrast, the lowest mineral accumulation of theyield was observed for iron. No bacterial contamination was detected for fruits harvested from plantsirrigated by wetland outflow water. In contrast, fruits harvested from those plants irrigated by prelimi-nary treated wastewater showed high contamination by total coliforms, Streptococcus spp. and Salmonellaspp. especially for fruits, which were located close to the contaminated soil surface. However, findingsindicate that vegetables receiving wastewater treated with wetlands can be considered as safe comparedto those receiving only preliminary treated wastewater. High yields in terms of economic return wereassociated with tap water and an organic growth medium, and a wetland with a small aggregate size anda low contact time.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering > Salford Innovation Research Centre (SIRC)
Journal or Publication Title: Agricultural Water Management
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0378-3774
Related URLs:
Funders: Iraqi Government
Depositing User: M Scholz
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2016 13:04
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2016 13:04
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/38170

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