Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in spinach (spinacia oleracea) grown in a controlled environment

Alia, N, Sardar, K, Said, M, Salma, K, Sadia, A, Sadaf, S, Toqeer, A and Miklas, S 2015, 'Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in spinach (spinacia oleracea) grown in a controlled environment' , International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (7) , pp. 7400-7416.

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Abstract

The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg) of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500), cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5) and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700) as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500), Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700), and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700). Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publisher: MDPI AG
ISSN: 1660-4601
Depositing User: WM Taylor
Date Deposited: 21 Oct 2016 08:03
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2016 08:03
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/40420

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