Progression towards high efficiency perovskite solar cells via optimisation of the front electrode and blocking layer

Yates, HM, Afzaal, M, Walter, A, Hodgkinson, JL, Moon, S-J, Sacchetto, D, Brauninger, M, Niesen, B, Nicolay, S, McCarthy, M, Pemble, ME, Povey, IM and Ballif, C 2016, 'Progression towards high efficiency perovskite solar cells via optimisation of the front electrode and blocking layer' , J. Mater. Chem. C, 4 , pp. 11269-11277.

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Abstract

The effects of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode, titanium dioxide (TiO2-x) blocking layer (BL) and perovskite (methyl ammonium lead triiodide) preparation on the overall properties of the photovoltaic cells have been studied. The FTO electrode was deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) and the hole blocking layer by spin coating, atomic layer deposition (ALD) or sputtering. We have shown the importance of obtaining uniform thin films of FTO, with low sheet resistance to aid the formation of pin hole free uniform TiO2-x blocking layers and hence well adhered, perovskite layers. Optimal BL thickness was 20 nm, while thicker films gave decreased shunt resistance and a greater number of pin holes through the layers. We also showed that the conformal nature of ALD and magnetron sputtering, along with their increased uniformity control over spin coating again improved cell efficiency. The main improvement comes for the smaller Roc, attributed to an improved electrical transport through particularly the sputtered TiO2-x blocking layer. After identifying the optimised parameters, all the properties were combined to fabricate large solar cells (1 cm2) yielding power conversion efficiencies beyond 16%.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering > Salford Innovation Research Centre (SIRC)
Journal or Publication Title: J. Mater. Chem. C
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN: 2050-7526
Related URLs:
Funders: EU
Depositing User: HM Yates
Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2017 09:42
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2017 19:20
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/40980

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