Reducing car-use for leisure : can organised walking groups switch from car travel to bus and train walks?

Davies, NJ and Weston, R 2015, 'Reducing car-use for leisure : can organised walking groups switch from car travel to bus and train walks?' , Journal of Transport Geography, 48 , pp. 23-29.

Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy)


This paper deals with the significant leisure travel sector, focusing on the attitudes of organised walking groups towards public transport use. A series of interviews with walking group leaders explored the design of organised walks, and factors affecting journeys to and from start points. The themes presented suggest an overlying group culture involving mainly circular walks, reached by car. The research indicates an underlying engrained dependency on cars to reach walks and a degree of opposition to using public transport, which generally contradicts widely–held attitudes towards protecting the environment. Future research should focus more in depth on the long-term removal of psychological barriers to using public transport for leisure, and persuasive measures aimed at groups.

Item Type: Article
Themes: ?? N870 ??
?? N850 ??
Schools: Schools > School of the Built Environment
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Transport Geography
Publisher: Elsevier
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 0966-6923
Related URLs:
Depositing User: WM Taylor
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2016 14:45
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2017 14:04
References: References Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1977) Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5) pp.888-918. Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour, Prentice-Hall. Ajzen I., Timko, C. & White, J. B. (1982) Self-monitoring and the attitude-behaviour relation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(3) pp.426-435 Ampt, E. (2003) Voluntary Household Travel Behaviour Change – Theory and Practice. Proc 10th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, Lucerne, Switzerland. Anable, J., Lane, B. and Kelay, T. (2006) An evidence base review of public attitudes to climate change and transport behaviour: Final report Department of Transport, July 2006 Brög, W., Erl, E. and Mense, N. (2002) Individualised Marketing: Changing Travel Behaviour for a better environment OECD Workshop: Environmentally Sustainable Transport Berlin, 05./06.12 2002 Bryman, A. (2001) Social Research Methods Oxford: Oxford University Press Chapman, L. (2007) Transport and climate change: a review Journal of Transport Geography 15(5) pp.354-367 Chhetri, P., Arrowsmith, C. and Jackson, M. (2004) Determining hiking experiences in nature-based tourist destinations Tourism Management 25(1) pp.31-43 Clifton, K. and Handy, S. (2003) ‘Qualitative methods in travel behaviour research’ in Jones, D. and Stopher, P. (Eds) Transport Quality and Innovation Oxford: Elsevier Science Cracknell, B. (1967) Accessibility to the countryside as a factor in planning for leisure. Regional Studies 1(2) pp.147 - 161. Curry, N. and Ravenscroft, N. (2001) Countryside recreation provision in England: exploring a demand-led approach. Land Use Policy 18(3) pp.281-291. Dargay, J. M. (2001) The effect of income on car ownership: evidence of asymmetry Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 35(9) pp.807-821 Davidson, A. R. and Jaccard, J. J. (1979) Variables that moderate the attitude–behavior relation: Results of a longitudinal survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(8) pp.1364-1376. Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2000) Handbook of qualitative research 2nd Edition Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Department for Transport (2014). National Travel Survey England 2013, Statistical Release, 29th July 2014 Dickinson, J. E., Calver, S., Watters, K., and Wilkes, K. (2004) Journeys to heritage attractions in the UK: a case study of National Trust property visitors in the south west. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(2) pp.103-113. Dickinson, J. E., and Dickinson, J. A. (2006) Local transport and social representation: challenging the assumptions for sustainable tourism Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(2) pp.192-208. Dickinson, J. E. and Robbins, D. (2007). Using the car in a fragile rural tourist destination: a social representations perspective. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(2) pp.116-126. Dickinson, J. E. and Robbins, D. (2008) Representations of tourism transport problems in a rural destination Tourism Management, 29 pp.1110-1121 Eckton, G. D. C. (2003) Road-user charging and the Lake District National Park. Journal of Transport Geography, 11(4) pp.307-317. Fazio, R. H. and Zanna, M. P. (1978) Attitudinal qualities relating to the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14(4) pp.398-408. Fox, M. (1995). Transport planning and the human activity approach. Journal of Transport Geography, 3(2) pp.105-116. Fujii, S. and Taniguchi, A. (2006) Determinants of the effectiveness of travel feedback programs – a review of communicative mobility management measures for changing travel behaviour in Japan. Transport Policy, 13(5) pp.339-348 Golob, T. F. and Hensher, D. A. (1998). Greenhouse gas emissions and Australian commuters' attitudes and behavior concerning abatement policies and personal involvement. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 3(1) pp.1-18. Gössling, S. (2002a) Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global environmental change part A, 12(4) pp.283-302 Gössling, S. (2002b) Human-environmental relations with tourism. Annals of tourism research, 29(2) pp.539-556 Gössling, S., Peeters, P.M., Ceron, J-P., Dubois, G., Patterson, T., Richardson, R. B. (2005) The eco-efficiency of tourism. Ecological Economics, 54(4) pp.417-434 Gramman, J. (1999) The effect of mechanical noise and natural sound on visitor experiences in units of the national park system. Social Science Research Review, 1(1) Gray, D., Farrington, J., Shaw, J., Martin. S. and Roberts, D. (2001) Car dependence in rural Scotland: transport policy, devolution and the impact of the fuel duty escalator. Journal of Rural Studies, 17(1) pp.113-125. Gronau, W. and Kagermeier, A. (2007) Key factors for successful leisure and tourism public transport provision. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(7) pp.127-135 Hagman, O. (2003). Mobilizing meanings of mobility: car users' constructions of the goods and bads of car use. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 8(1) pp.1-9. Hall, D. (2010) Transport geography and new European realities: a critique. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(1) pp.1-13 Hensher, D. A. (1998) Establishing a fare elasticity regime for urban passenger transport. Journal of Transport Economic Policy, 32(2) pp.221-246 Ingold, T. and Vergunst, J. L. (2008) Ways of Walking: Ethnography and practice on foot, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited Jaarsma, C. F., Vries, J. R. and Beunen, R. (2009) Planning and managing rural recreational flows: why the future can’t be more like the past. 23rd Congress of the Association of European Schools of Planning, 15th – 18th July 2009, Liverpool, UK. Kierle, I. and Stephens, M. (2004) Do walkers stay on footpaths? An observational study of Cwm Idwal in the Snowdonia National Park. Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2 Kvale, S. (1996) Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage Publications Lewis, J. and Ritchie, J. (2003) ‘Generalising from qualitative research’ in Ritchie, J. and Lewis, J.(Eds), Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London, SAGE Publications Lumsdon, L., Downward, P. and Rhoden, S. (2006) Transport for tourism: can public transport encourage a modal shift in the day visitor market? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(2) pp.139-156 Lumsdon, L. and Tolley, R. (2004) ‘Non-motorised transport and tourism: A case study: Cycle tourism, In Lumsdon, L. and Page, S. (Eds) Tourism and Transport: Issues and agenda for the new millennium, Oxford: Elsevier pp.157-170 Lenthorp, B. (1976) Paths in space-time environments: A time-geographic study of movement possibilities of individuals, Lund Studies in Geography 01/1976 Macnaghten, P. (1995). Public attitudes to countryside leisure: A case study on ambivalence. Journal of Rural Studies, 11(2) pp.135-147. McEldowney, M., Ryley, T., Scott, M. and Smyth, A. (2005) Integrating land-use planning and transportation in Belfast: a new policy agenda for sustainable development? Journal of environmental planning and management, 48(4) pp.507-526 Natural England (2015) Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment: The National Survey of People and the Natural Environment, Quarterly Report, December 2014 – February 2015 Ogilvie, D., Egan, M., Hamilton, V. and Pettigrew, M. (2004) Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: systematic review. BMJ, 329(7469) pp.763 Owens, S. and Driffill, L. (2008) How to change attitudes and behaviours in the context of energy. Energy Policy, 36 pp.4412-4418 Palmberg, I. E. and Kuru J. (2000) Outdoor activities as a basis for environmental responsibility. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4) Phillip, S. and Macmillan, D. C. (2006) Car park charging in the Cairngorms National Park. Scottish Geographical Journal, 122(3) pp.204 - 222. Phillips, A. and Ashcroft, P. (1987) The impact of research in countryside policy development. Leisure Studies, 6(1987) pp.315-328, cited in Macnaghten, P. (1995). Public attitudes to countryside leisure: A case study on ambivalence. Journal of Rural Studies, 11(2) pp.135-147. Rambler’s Association (2013). Find a walk to go on. Available @ accessed 6/2/2013 Ritchie, J. and Spencer, L. (2002) ‘Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research’ in Bryman, A. and Burgess, R. G. (Eds) Analysing Qualitative Data London: Routledge Seethaler, R. K. and Rose, G. (2004) Application of psychological principles to promote travel behaviour change. Transport Engineering in Australia, 9(2) pp.103-118 Silverman, D. (2005) Qualitative Research (2nd Edition) SAGE Publications Ltd Small, K. A. and Kazimi, C. (1995). On the costs of air pollution by motor vehicles. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 29(1) pp.7-32. Steel, B. S. (1996). Thinking Globally and Acting Locally?: Environmental Attitudes, Behaviour and Activism. Journal of Environmental Management, 47(1) pp.27-36. Steiner, T. J. and Bristow, A. L. (2000). Road pricing in National Parks: a case study in the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Transport Policy, 7(2) pp.93-103. of Transport Geography 4(3): 213-217. Visit England (2013) England’s Countryside: What are the Opportunities? Wardman, M. (2004) Public transport values of time. Transport Policy, 11(4) pp.363-377

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)