Mitoketoscins : novel mitochondrial inhibitors for targeting ketone metabolism in cancer stem cells (CSCs).

Ozsvari, B, Sotgia, F, Simmons, K, Trowbridge, R, Foster, R and Lisanti, MP 2017, 'Mitoketoscins : novel mitochondrial inhibitors for targeting ketone metabolism in cancer stem cells (CSCs).' , Oncotarget, 8 (45) , pp. 78340-78350.

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Abstract

Previous studies have now well-established that epithelial cancer cells can utilize ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate) as mitochondrial fuels, to actively promote tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. The two critical metabolic enzymes implicated in this process are OXCT1 and ACAT1, which are both mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, over-expression of OXCT1 or ACAT1 in human breast cancer cells is sufficient to genetically drive tumorigenesis and/or lung metastasis, validating that they indeed behave as metabolic "tumor promoters". Here, we decided to target these two enzymes, which give cancer cells the ability to recycle ketone bodies into Acetyl-CoA and, therefore, to produce increased ATP. Briefly, we used computational chemistry (in silico drug design) to select a sub-set of potentially promising compounds that spatially fit within the active site of these enzymes, based on their known 3D crystal structures. These libraries of compounds were then phenotypically screened for their effects on total cellular ATP levels. Positive hits were further validated by metabolic flux analysis. Our results indicated that four of these compounds effectively inhibited mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Two of these compounds also induced a reactive glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells. Most importantly, using the mammosphere assay, we showed that these compounds can be used to functionally inhibit cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and propagation. Finally, our molecular modeling studies directly show how these novel compounds are predicted to bind to the active catalytic sites of OXCT1 and ACAT1, within their Coenzyme A binding site. As such, we speculate that these mitochondrial inhibitors are partially mimicking the structure of Coenzyme A. Thus, we conclude that OXCT1 and ACAT1 are important new therapeutic targets for further drug development and optimization. We propose that this new class of drugs should be termed "mitoketoscins", to reflect that they were designed to target ketone re-utilization and mitochondrial function.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: cancer stem-like cells, drug design, ketone bodies, mitochondria, tumor-initiating cells
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Biomedical Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Oncotarget
Publisher: Impact Journals
ISSN: 1949-2553
Related URLs:
Funders: University of Manchester
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2017 12:03
Last Modified: 20 Nov 2017 12:07
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/44377

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