Phylogeny, molecular dating and zoogeographic history of the titi monkeys (Callicebus, Pitheciidae) of eastern Brazil

Carneiro, J, Sampaio, I, Silva-Junior, J, Farias, I, Hrbek, T, Pissinatti, A, Silva, R, Martins-Junior, A, Boubli, JP, Ferrari, S and Schneider, H 2018, 'Phylogeny, molecular dating and zoogeographic history of the titi monkeys (Callicebus, Pitheciidae) of eastern Brazil' , Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution .

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The titi monkeys belong to a genus of New World primates endemic to South America, which were recently reclassified in three genera (Cheracebus, Plecturocebus and Callicebus). The genus Callicebus, which currently includes five species, is endemic to eastern Brazil, occurring in the Caatinga, Savanna, and Atlantic Forest biomes. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these species and inferred their phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic patterns based on the molecular analysis of a concatenated sequence of 11 mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, derived from 13 specimens. We ran Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) analyses, and estimated genetic distances, divergence times. Ancestral areas were estimated on BioGeoBears. Our results suggest that at about twelve million years ago, the ancestor of all titi monkeys inhabited a wide area that extended from the Amazon forest to the South of the Atlantic forest. A first vicariant event originated Cheracebus in the West of the Amazon and the ancestor of Callicebus and Plectorocebus which, later were separated by a second one. The diversification of Callicebus occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene (beginning at 5 Ma) probably influenced by climatic fluctuations and geological events. Therefore, the results of the present work confirmed the existence of five species that currently inhabit forested areas under increasing threat from human activities. Thus, a reliable diagnosis of the taxonomic status of species living in endangered environments is extremely important for the development of conservation measures.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Ecosystems and Environment Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1055-7903
Related URLs:
Funders: CNPq, FAPESP, NSF
Depositing User: Prof JP Boubli
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2018 08:59
Last Modified: 21 Mar 2018 07:49

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