Fatherhood regimes and father involvement in France and the UK

Gregory, A and Milner, SE 2008, 'Fatherhood regimes and father involvement in France and the UK' , Community, Work & Family, 11 (1) , pp. 61-84.

This is the latest version of this item.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (171kB) | Request a copy


This paper contrasts and compares the institutional framework for fatherhood and father involvement and the survey evidence relating to fathers’ contribution to childcare and domestic work in the two countries. It shows that while men’s contribution to such activities appears to be increasing in both France and the UK, change is slow and father involvement does not necessarily seem to correlate directly either with patterns of female labour force participation or with the support offered by the institutional framework. The authors explore the theoretical frameworks most appropriate for explaining their findings and situate them primarily in terms of Pfau-Effinger’s theorization of the gender arrangement (1998, 2002, 2004). The authors conclude that while change in father involvement is slow, the introduction of statutory and organizational worklife balance measures which alter the gender order open up opportunities for negotiated change in the division of the labour in the home.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: fathers; fatherhood; father involvement; domestic division of labour; work�life balance; France; UK
Themes: Subjects / Themes > H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Subjects / Themes > H Social Sciences > HQ The family. Marriage. Woman > HQ503 The family. Marriage. Home
Subjects / Themes > H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Subjects outside of the University Themes
Schools: Schools > School of Humanities, Languages & Social Sciences
Schools > School of Nursing, Midwifery, Social Work & Social Sciences > Centre for Nursing, Midwifery, Social Work & Social Sciences Research
Journal or Publication Title: Community, Work & Family
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Refereed: Yes
ISSN: 1366-8803
Depositing User: Professor Abigail Gregory
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2010 11:42
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2015 23:37
References: Anxo, D. (2002). Time allocation and the gender division of labour in France and Sweden. In P. Auer & B. Gazier (Eds.), The future of work, employment and social protection. Geneva: International Labour Organisation. Anxo, D., Flood, L., & Kocoglu, Y. (2002). Offre de travail et re´partition des activite´s domestiques et parentales au sein du couple: Une comparaison entre la France et la Sue`de. Economie et Statistique, 352353, 127146. Barre`re-Maurisson, M. A. (2004). Masculin/fe´minin: Vers un nouveau partage des roˆ les? Cahiers Franc¸ais, 322, 2228. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage. Benjamin, O., & Sullivan, O. (1999). Relational resources, gender consciousness and possibilities of change in marital relationships. The Sociological Review, 147(4), 794820. Bergman, H., & Hobson, B. (2002). Compulsory fatherhood and the coding of fatherhood in the Swedish welfare state. In B. Hobson (Ed.), Making men into fathers. Men, masculinities and the social politics of fatherhood (pp. 92124). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Blo¨ ss, T. (2001). L’e´galite´ parentale au coeur des contradictions de la vie prive´e et des politiques publiques. In T. Bloss (Ed.), La dialectique des rapports hommes-femmes (pp. 45-70). Paris: PUF. Blo¨ ss, T., & Odena, S. (2005). Ide´ologies et pratiques sexue´es des roˆ les parentaux. Recherches et Pre´visions, 80, 7791. Boisard, P. (2004). Working time policy in France (Document de Travail No. 34). Paris: Centre d’E´ tudes de l’Emploi. Community, Work & Family, 79 Boyer, D., & Nicolas, M. (2006). La disponibilite´ des pe`res: Conduite par les contraintes de travail des me`res? Recherches et Pre´visions, 84, 3552. Boyer, D., & Renouard, S. (2003, April 2). ‘Chacun y trouve son compte’: Premiers re´sultats de l’e´tude sur les hommes be´ne´ficiaires de l’APE. Paris: CNAF. Brandth, B., & Kvande, E. (1998). Masculinity and child care: The reconstruction of fathering. The Sociological Review, 46(2), 293313. Brandth, B., & Kvande, E. (2002). Flexible work and flexible fathers. Work. Employment and Society, 15(2), 251267. Brousse, C. (2000). Madame cuisine, monsieur jardine? Proble`mes Economiques, 2665, 2023. Castelain-Meunier, C. (2002). La place des hommes et les me´tamorphoses de la famille. Paris: PUF. Castelain-Meunier, C., & Delaisi de Parseval, G. (2002, January 9). De papa poule a` papa pole. Libe´ration. Chauffaut, D. (with David, E.). (2003). Le conge´ de paternite´, ve´cus et repre´sentations dans les premiers mois de sa mise en oeuvre. Etudes et Re´sultats, 228. Paris: Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes de l’Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES). Chauffaut, D., David, E., & Vallet, M. (2002). Les de´buts du conge´ paternite´: Vecu et representations. Paris: CREDOC. Clarke, L., & Roberts, C. (2002). Policy and rhetoric: The growing interest in fathers and grandparents in Britain. In A. Carling, S. Duncan & R. Edwards (Eds.), Analysing families. Morality and rationality in policy and practice (pp. 165182). London and New York: Routledge. Collier, R. (1995). Masculinity, law and the family. London and New York: Routledge. Collier, R. (2001, September 56). Changing men’s role: Reassessing the relationship between law, policy and family (practices). Paper presented at the conference ‘Progressing Gender Relations in Europe: Issues of Equality in Paid and Unpaid Work’, University of Salford. Coltrane, S. (2004). Fathers. In Sloan Work and Family Encyclopaedia. Chestnut Hill, MA: Sloan Work and Family Network. Commaille, J., Strobel, P., & Villac, M. (2002). La politique de la famille. Paris: La de´couverte. Crompton, R. (Ed.). (1999). Restructuring gender relations and employment. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crompton, R., Brockman, M., & Lyonette, C. (2005). Attitudes, women’s employment and the domestic division of labour: A cross-national analysis in two waves. Work. Employment and Society, 19(2), 213234. Crompton, R., & Harris, F. (1999). Attitudes, women’s employment, and the changing domestic division of labour: A cross-national analysis. In R. Crompton (Ed.), Restructuring gender relations and employment (pp. 105127). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crompton, R., & Le Feuvre, N. (2000). Gender, family and employment in comparative perspective: The realities and representations of equal opportunities in Britain and France. Journal of European Social Policy, 10(4), 334348. Daly, K. J. (Ed.). (2001). Minding the time in family experience: Emerging perspectives and issues. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Department of Trade and Industry. (2005). Work and families. Choice and flexibility. A consultation document. London: DTI. Dex, S. (Ed.). (1999). Families and the labour market: Trends, pressures and policies. London: Family Policy Studies Centre/Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Duncan, S. (2002a). Family geographies and gender cultures. Social Policy and Society, 1(1), 2134. Duncan, S. (2002b). Policy discourses on ‘Reconciling Work and Life’ in the EU. Social Policy and Society, 1(4), 305314. Duncan, S., & Pfau-Effinger, B. (Eds.). (2000). Gender, economy and culture in the European Union. London and New York: Routledge. 80 A. Gregory & S. Milner Duncan, S., & Smith, D. (2002). Geographies of family formations: Spatial differences and gender cultures in Britain. Transactions of the Institute of British geographers, 27(4), 471-493. Duyvendak, J. W., & Stavenuiter, M. (Eds.). (2004). Working fathers, caring men. The Hague/Utrecht: Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment/Verwey-Jonker-Institute. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundation of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. European Industrial Relations Review. (2004, November 2426). Diversity accord concluded at PSA Peugeot Citroe¨n, 370. Eurostat. (2004). How Europeans spend their time. Everyday life of women and men. Brussels: European Commission. Fagan, C. (2001). Time, money and the gender order: Work orientations and working-time preferences in Britain. Gender, Work and Organisation, 8(3), 239266. Fagnani, J. (2000). Un travail et des enfants. Petits arbitrages et grands dilemmes. Paris: Bayard. Fagnani, J. (with Houriet-Se´gard, G., & Be´douin, S.). (2004). Context mapping report, for the EU Framework 5 study ‘Gender, Parenthood and the Changing European Workplace’, Research Report 1, Manchester Metropolitan University. Fagnani, J., & Letablier, M.-T. (2003). S’occuper des enfants au quotidien: Mais que font donc les pe`res? Droit Social, 3, 251259. Fagnani, J., & Letablier, M.-T. (2004). Work and family life balance: The impact of the 35-hour laws in France. Work Employment and Society, 18(3), 551572. Ferrand, M. (2001). Du droit des pe`res aux pouvoirs des me`res. In J. Laufer, C. Marry & M. Maruani (Eds.), Masculin-Fe´minin: Questions pour les sciences de l’homme (pp. 187210). Paris: PUF. Ferri, E., & Smith, K. (1996). Parenting in the 1990s (Family and Parenthood Series). London: Family Policy Studies Centre. Franco, A., & Winqvist, K. (2002). Women and men reconciling work and family life. Statistics in focus, Population and social conditions, 9. Gauthier, A., Smeeding, T., & Furstenberg, F. F. (2004). Do we invest less time in children? Trends in parental time in selected industrialized countries. Population and Development Review, 30(4), 647671. Gershuny, J. I. (2000). Changing times: Work and leisure in postindustrial society. New York: Oxford University Press. Gershuny, J. I., Godwin, M., & Jones, S. (1994). The domestic labour revolution: A process of lagged adaptation? In M. Anderson, F. Bechoffer & J. I. Gershuny (Eds.), The social and political economy of the household (pp. 151197). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gershuny, J. I., & Sullivan, O. (2003). Time use, gender, and public policy regimes. Social Politics, 10(2), 205228. Giddens, A. (1992). The transformation of intimacy. Cambridge: Polity Press. Giddens, A. (1999). Runaway world. How globalisation is reshaping our lives. Profile. Gornick, J. C., & Meyers, M. K. (2003). Families that work. Policies for reconciling parenthood and employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Gregory, A., & Milner, S. (2004). Dispositifs publics et investissements des pe`res: Une comparaison franco-britannique. Recherches et Pre´visions, 76, 6378. Gregory, A., & Milner, S. (2005a). Fatherhood: Comparative Western perspectives. Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia, 1/2005. Retrieved from http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.phd?id368 Gregory, A., & Milner, S. (2005b). Les pe`res a` la recherche d’un nouvel e´quilibre entre responsabilite´s familiales et professionnelles: Une comparaison franco-britannique. Final report presented to the Caisse Nationale des Allocations Familiales, Paris. Community, Work & Family, 81 Gregory, A., & Windebank, J. (2000). Women and work in Britain and France. Practice, theory and policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Haas, L. L. (1992). Equal parenthood and social policy: A study of parental leave in Sweden. Albany: State University of New York Press. Hantrais, L. (2000). From equal pay to reconciliation of employment and family life. In Gendered policies in Europe. Reconciling employment and family life. New York: St Martin’s Press. Hantrais, L. (2004). Family policy matters. Responding to family change in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press. Hantrais, L., & Letablier, M.-T. (1996). Family and family policies in Europe. London and New York: Longman. Harkness, S. (2003). The household division of labour: Changes in families’ allocation of paid and unpaid work, 19922002. In R. Dickens, P. Gregg & J. Wadsworth (Eds.), The labour market under New Labour. The state of working Britain (pp. 150169). Basingstoke: Palgrave. Hatten, W., Vinter, L., & Williams, R. (2002). Dads on dads: Needs and expectations at home and at work. London: Equal Opportunities Commission. Hester, M., & Harne, L. (1999). Fatherhood, children and violence: Placing Britain in an international context. In S. Watson & L. Doyal (Eds.), Engendering social policy (pp. 148 164). Buckingham: Open University Press. HM Treasury & DTI. (2003). Balancing work and family life: Enhancing choice and support for parents. Hobson, B. (Ed.). (2002). Making men into fathers. Men, masculinities and the social politics of fatherhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hobson, B., & Martin, D. (2002). Introduction. In B. Hobson (Ed.), Making men into fathers. Men, masculinities and the social politics of fatherhood (pp. 121). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hyde, J. S., Essex, M. J., Clark, R., Klein, M. H., & Byrd, J. E. (1996). Parental leave: Policy and research. Journal of Social Issues, 52(3), 91109. Inglehart, R. (1977). The silent revolution changing values and political styles among Western publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Jacquot, L., & Setti, N. (2006). L’utopie du temps choisi. Les ambivalences des 35 heures dans une caisse re´gionale d’assurance maladie. Recherches et Pre´visions, 84, 8395. Ku¨nzler, J. (2002). Paths towards a modernization of gender relations, policies, and family building. In F.-X. Kaufmann, A. Kuyser, H.-J. Schulze & K. P. Strohmeier (Eds.), Family life and family policies in Europe: Vol. II. Problems and issues in comparative perspective (pp. 252298). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lamb, M. E. (1987). The father’s role. Cross-cultural perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ and London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Lamb, M. E. (Ed.). (2004). The role of the father in child development (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley. Lamb, M. E., Pleck, J. H., Charnov, E. L., & Levine, J. A. (1987). A biosocial perspective on paternal behaviour and involvement. In J. B. Lancaster, J. Altman, A. Rossi & L. R. Sherrod (Eds.), Parenting across the lifespan: Biosocial perspectives (pp. 1143). New York: Academic Press. LaRossa, R. (1997). The modernization of fatherhood: A social and political history. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Laurie, H., & Gershuny, J. (2000). Couples, work and money. In R. Berthoud & J. Gershuny (Eds.), Seven years in the lives of British families (pp. 4572). Bristol: Policy Press. Letablier, M.-T. (2002). L’e´galite´ entre les sexes: Un enjeu de politique familiale. Informations sociales, 102, 6072. Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2004). Fathers’ influences in children’s development: The evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18, 211228. 82 A. Gregory & S. Milner Lewis, J. (1992). Gender and the development of welfare regimes. Journal of European Social Policy, 2(3), 159173. Lewis, J. (2002). The problem of fathers: Policy and behaviour in Britain. In B. Hobson & D. Martin (Eds.), Making men into fathers: Men, masculinities, and the social politics of fatherhood (pp. 125149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lojkine, J., & Male´tras, J.-L. (2002). La guerre du temps. Paris: L’Harmattan. Lupton, D., & Barclay, L. (1997). Constructing fatherhood: Discourses and experiences. London: Sage. Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R. D., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11731191. Me´da, D. (2001). Le Temps des femmes: Pour un nouveau partage des roˆles. Paris: Flammarion. Me´da, D., Cette, G., & Dromel, N. (2004). Les pe`res, entre travail et employ. Recherches et Pre´visions, 76, 721. Me´da, D., & Orain, R. (2002). Transformations du travail et du hors-travail: La formation du jugement des salarie´s sur la RTT. Travail et Emploi, 90. Ministe`re de la Justice. (2003). La re´sidence en alternance des enfants des parents se´pare´s. E´tudes et Statistiques Justice, No. 23. Morgan, D. (2001). Family, gender and masculinities. In J. M. Whitehead & F. J. Barrett (Eds.), The masculinities reader (pp. 223232). Cambridge: Polity. Moss, P., & O’Brien, M. (2005). Leave policies and research. In P. Moss & F. Deven (Eds.), Parental leave policy in Europe (Working Document No. 3, pp. 187196). Brussels: Centre for Population and Family Studies. Mutari, E., & Figart, D. M. (2001). Europe at a crossroads: Harmonization, liberalization, and the gender of work time. Social Politics, 8(1), 3664. O’Brien, M., & Shemilt, I. (2003). Working fathers: Earning and caring. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission. OECD. (2002). Women at work: Who are they and how are they faring? OECD Employment Outlook, 61125. Pease, B., & Pringle, K. (2001). A man’s world? Changing men’s practices in a globalized world. London and New York: Zed Books. Pfau-Effinger, B. (1998). Gender cultures and the gender arrangement * A theoretical framework for cross-national comparisons on gender. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(2), 147166. Pfau-Effinger, B. (2002). Changing welfare states and labour markets in the context of European gender arrangements. In J. Goul Andersen & P. H. Jensen (Eds.), Changing labour markets, welfare policies and citizenship (pp. 235256). Bristol: Policy Press. Pfau-Effinger, B. (2004). Development of culture, welfare states and women’s employment in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. Pleck, J. H. (1997). Paternal involvement: Levels, sources and consequences. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (3rd ed., pp. 66103). New York: John Wiley. Pleck, J. H., & Stueve, J. L. (2001). Time and paternal involvement. In K. J. Daly (Ed.), Minding the time in family experience: Emerging perspectives and issues (pp. 205226). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Rubery, J., Smith, M., & Fagan, C. (1998). Gender, societal effects and working-time regimes. Feminist Economics, 4(1), 71101. Russell, G. (2001). Adopting a global perspective on fatherhood. In B. Pease & K. Pringle (Eds.), A man’s world? Changing men’s practices in a globalized world (pp. 5268). London and New York: Zed Books. Sainsbury, D. (1994). Gendering welfare states. London and New York: Sage. Singley, S. G., & Hynes, K. (2005). Gender and Society, 19(3), 376397. Singly, F. de. (1996). Le soi, le couple et la famille. Paris: Nathan. Community, Work & Family, 83 Smeaton, D., & Marsh, A. (2006). Maternity and paternity rights and benefits: Survey of p
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/7016

Available Versions of this Item

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)


Downloads per month over past year