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How analysis and synthesis have been understood in design

Codinhoto, R, Koskela, LJ, Tzortzopoulos, P and Kagioglou, M 2006, How analysis and synthesis have been understood in design , in: 14th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 25-27 July 2006, Ponteficia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

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    In the disciplines related to the design of products and services, such as New Product Development and Design Science, there is a lack of a commonly accepted theoretical and methodical basis. This papers starts with the proposition that the ancient method of analysis and synthesis, developed originally by Greek geometers, is the basis of models that have been used to classify and describe the ill structured design problem. In this paper, we examine the possibility of improving our understanding of the design process and therefore lean design management by bringing to light a discussion about the concepts of analysis and synthesis and how these have been interpreted through time. Also, how this concept has been used within engineering design methods. To do so, we investigate how analysis and synthesis have been understood in the literature, indicating similarities and differences between ancient and current understandings.

    Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Analysis and synthesis, design process, engineering design
    Themes: Subjects / Themes > B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BD Speculative Philosophy > BD143 Epistemology. Theory of knowledge
    Subjects / Themes > T Technology > TS Manufactures > TS155-194 Production management. Operations management
    Subjects outside of the University Themes
    Schools: Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of the Built Environment
    Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of the Built Environment > Salford Centre for Research & Innovation (SCRI)
    Journal or Publication Title: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction
    Refereed: Yes
    Depositing User: LJ Koskela
    Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2010 11:24
    Last Modified: 20 Aug 2013 17:19
    References: Archer, L. B., (1984) Systematic method for designers, Developments in Design Methodology. N. Cross. Chichester, Wiley. Beaney, M. (2003a) Analysis, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Summer 2003 Edition). E. N. Zalta. 2005, URL = < analysis/>. Beaney, M. (2003b) Ancient conceptions of analysis: a supplement to Analysis, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Summer 2003 Edition), E. N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <>. Codinhoto, R., Koskela, L. J., Kagioglou, M. (2006) [online] Product Development Life Cycle: the potential use of the “V” Model within construction, Abstract available from <> (accessed on 12th June 2006) Cross, N. (1989) Engineering Design Methods, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Cross, N. (1997) Descriptive models of creative design: application to an example, Design Studies 18: 427-455. Cross, N. (2004) Expertise in design: an overview, Design Studies 25: 427-441. Cross, N., J. Naughton, et al. (1981) Design method and scientific method, Design Studies 2(4): 195-201. Descartes, R. (1637) Descartes: Discourse on Method and Meditations, Penguin Books. Forsberg, K, & Mooz, H, 1998, Systems engineering for faster, cheaper, better. Center for Systems Management, Inc. Available at Forsberg, K, Mooz, H, & Cotterman, H, 1996, Visualizing Project Management, John Wiley&Sons, US. Heath, T. L., (1981). A History of Greek Mathematics, New York, Dover Publications. Hintikka, J., Remes, U. (1974). The Method of Analysis. Its Geometrical Origin and Its General Significance, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. XXV, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 144 p., 1974. Hubka, V., W. E. Eder (1988). Theory of technical systems: a total concept theory for engineering design, Germany, Springer-Verlag. Hubka, V.; W. E. Eder (1996). Design Science, London, Springer Verlag. Koskela, L. J.; Kagioglou, M., (2006). The proto-theory of design: the method of analysis of the ancient geometers, International Design Conference - Design 2006, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 15 - 18, 2006. Kotler, P. (1998). Administração de Marketing: análise, planejamento, implementação e controle. 5.ed. São Paulo, Atlas. Lawson, B. (2006). How Designers Think: the design process demystified, Architectural Press. Levitt, T. (1990) Imaginação de Marketing, 2.ed, São Paulo: Atlas. Niiniluoto, I., (1990). Edgar Allan Poe ja geometrinen analyysi [Edgar Allan Poe and geometric analysis], in: ”Maailma, minä ja kulttuuri”, I. Niiniluoto, Otava, Helsinki,. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Pahl, G.; Beitz, W. (1996). Engineering Design, Springer. Plato (380BC) Meno, Translated by Benjamin Jowett, available in: Polya, G. (2004). How to solve it, Princeton University Press. Pugh, S. (1991) Total Design, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham. Ritchie, T. (1991) Analysis and Synthesis: On Scientific Method, Based on a Study by Bernhard Riemann, Systems Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 21-41. Roozenburg, N. F. M.; Eekels, J. (1995) Product Design: fundamentals and Methods, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Simon, H. A. (1969). The Sciences of the Artificial, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, MIT Press. 134 Fritz Gehbauer, Patricia Stock and Peter Steffek Proceedings IGLC-14, July 2006, Santiago, Chile Smith, R. (2004) Aristotle’s Logic, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, E. N. Zalta (ed.), URL = Suh, N. P. (1990). The Principles of Design, New York.

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