Skip to the content

Making do - the eighth category of waste

Koskela, LJ 2004, Making do - the eighth category of waste , in: 12th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 3-5 August 2004, Helsingor, Denmark.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Download (718kB) | Preview

    Abstract

    The seminal authors on the Toyota Production System present a list of seven wastes. Even if many subsequent authors have suggested additions to this list, it is usually presented in its original form. This paper contends that there is a very common, generic type of waste that should be added to the list, because it can be justified using the same conceptualizations as used by the seminal authors. Making-do as a waste refers to a situation where a task is started without all its standard inputs, or the execution of a task is continued although the availability of at least one standard input has ceased. The term input refers not only to materials, but to all other inputs such as machinery, tools, personnel, external conditions, instructions etc. Especially in production situations where there are several uncertain inflows to the task, making-do is a common phenomenon, and requires explicit attention. In conceptual analysis, making-do is the opposite of buffering. In buffering, materials are waiting for being processed. In making-do, the waiting time of one type of material – or other inputs – is negative: processing is started before the material has arrived. However, both forms of waste are used for accommodating the impacts of variability in production. Making-do is applied especially for maintaining a high utilization rate or for avoiding schedule slippage. Thus, making-do is another penalty due to variability, and it should be added to the conceptual arsenal of queueing-theory based analysis of production (Factory Physics).

    Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
    Themes: Subjects / Themes > T Technology > TS Manufactures > TS155-194 Production management. Operations management
    Subjects outside of the University Themes
    Schools: Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of the Built Environment
    Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of the Built Environment > Salford Centre for Research & Innovation (SCRI)
    Journal or Publication Title: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction
    Refereed: Yes
    Depositing User: LJ Koskela
    Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2010 11:38
    Last Modified: 20 Aug 2013 17:19
    References: Ballard, Glenn 2000. The Last Planner System of Production Control, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Bimringham. Ballard, Glenn. 2002. Managing work flow on design projects: a case study. Engineering Construction and Architectural Management 9 (3), 284-291. Bertelsen, Sven. 2004. Construction Management in a Complexity Perspective. The 1st SCRI International Symposium, University of Salford, UK. Elfving, Jan A. 2003. Exploration of Opportunities to Reduce Lead Times for Engineered-to-Order Products. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. Green, Stuart. 1996. SMART Value Management: A Group Decision Support Methodology for Building Design. The University of Reading, Department of Construction Management and Engineering. Grosfeld-Nir, Abraham & Ronen, Boaz. 1998. The complete kit: modelling the managerial approach. Computers Ind. Engng, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 695-701. Hopp, Wallace & Spearman, Mark. 1996. Factory Physics: Foundations of Manufacturing Management. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston. 668 p. Howell, Greg & Ballard, Glenn. 1994. Lean Production Theory: Moving beyond "Can-Do". II International Workshop on Lean Construction. September 28-29, 1994, Santiago de Chile. 7 p. Jaafari, All. 1984. Criticism of CPM for Project Planning Analysis. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 110, No. 2, pp. 222-233. Koskela, Lauri. 2000. An exploration towards a production theory and its application to construction. Espoo, VTT Building Technology, 2000. 296 p. VTT Publications; 408. Koskela, Lauri & Howell, Greg. 2002a. The underlying theory of project management is obsolete. Proceedings of PMI Research Conference 2002 Ed. by Dennis P. Slevin, David I Cleland, Jeffrey K. Pinto. Project Management Institute. Koskela, Lauri & Howell, Greg. 2002b. The Theory of Project Management: Explanation to Novel Methods Proceedings of IGLC-10. 10th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 6-8 August, 2002, Gramado. Ed. by Carlos T. Formoso & Glenn Ballard. UFRGS, Porto Alegre. Pp. 1-11. Ohno, Taiichi. 1988. Toyota production system. Productivity Press, Cambridge, MA. 143 p. Origin and history. Retrieved on May 29, 2004 from <http://astro.stanfordedu/StudObs/hist.html> Reinertsen, Donald G. 1997. Managing the Design Factory. The Free Press. 269 p. Ronen, B. 1992. The complete kit concept. Int. J. Prod. Res., Vol. 30, No. 10, pp. 2457-2466. Schonberger, Richard J. 1990. Building a chain of customers. The Free Press, New York 349 p. Womack, James P. & Jones, Daniel T. 1996. Lean Thinking. Simon & Schuster, New York. 350 p.
    URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/9386

    Document Downloads

    More statistics for this item...

    Actions (login required)

    Edit record (repository staff only)