Skip to the content

The use of visual angle in car following traffic micro-simulation models

Al-Obaedi, JTS and Yousif, S 2009, The use of visual angle in car following traffic micro-simulation models , in: International Built & Human Environment Research Week (IRW)., 26th - 30th January 2009, Salford, Greater Manchester..

[img] PDF
Download (197kB)
[img] Microsoft Word
Restricted to Repository staff only

Download (140kB)


This paper presents a detailed literature review on car following models and methods used in describing the behaviour between two drivers of successive vehicles travelling in a traffic stream. The paper then concentrates on presenting a proposed car following model based on visual information which are perceived by the driver of the following vehicle. The model represents a modified version of similar models used in the past for describing the “leader-follower” behaviour which depends on the use of visual angle in determining the required spacing between pairs of vehicles. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to find out reasonable horizontal angular velocity threshold values which give best representation of driver’s reaction time. The capability of the model is then tested to represent the effect of size of vehicles on such threshold values and the required distance between vehicles. Further tests to calibrate and validate the proposed model are needed in order to represent real traffic behaviour using data from selected sites. The proposed model will mainly be used at a later stage in representing traffic behaviour at motorway ramp metering and measuring its effectiveness.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Themes: Subjects / Themes > T Technology > TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements
Built and Human Environment
Schools: Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology
Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Colleges and Schools > College of Science & Technology > School of Computing, Science and Engineering > Civil Engineering Research Centre
Refereed: No
Depositing User: S Yousif
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2010 11:19
Last Modified: 20 Aug 2013 16:21
References: Aycin, M.F., Benekohal, R.F. (1998) Linear acceleration car-following model development and validation. Transportation Research Record 1644, TRB, Washington, DC, pp. 10–19 Benekohal, R.F., and Treiterer, J. (1988) CARSIM: Car-following model for simulation of traffic in normal and stop-and-go conditions. Transportation Research Board 1194, pp. 99-111. Bham, G. H. and Benekohal, R.F. (2004) A high fidelity traffic simulation model based on cellular automata and car-following concepts. Transportation Research Part C, Volume (12), pp. 1-32. Brackstone, M. and McDonald, M. (1999) Car following: a historical review. Transportation Research Part F, Volume (2), pp. 181-196. Chandler, R. E., Herman, R., and Montroll, E. W. (1958) Traffic dynamic: studies in car following. Operation Research, Volume (6), pp. 165-184. Chen, S., Sheridan, T. B., Kusunoki, H. and Komoda, N. (1995) Car following- measurements simulation, and a proposed procedure for evaluation safety. Analyses, Design and Evaluation of Man-Machine System. Volume (2) pp. 529-34 Clark, J. and Daigle, G. (1997) The Importance of simulation Techniques in ITS research and analysis. Proceedings of the 1997 Winter Simulation Conference. USA. Ferrari, P. (1989) The effect of driver behaviour on motorway reliability. Transportation Research Part B, Volume (23B), No. 2, pp. 139-150. Fox, P. and Lehman, F.G. (1967) Safety in car following. Newark, (N.J.), Newark college of Engineering. Gazis, D.C., Herman, R. and Rothery, W. (1960) Nonlinear follow-the-leader models of traffic flow. Research Laboratories, General Motor Corporation, Warren, Michigan, pp. 545-567. Gipps, P. G. (1981) A behavioural car following model for computer simulation. Transportation Research Part B, Volume (15) pp. 105-111. Hidas, P. (1996) A car-following model for urban traffic simulation. Traffic Engineering and Control. Volume (39) pp. 300-305. Hoffman, E.R. and Mortimer, G.R. (1994) Estimate of time to collision. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume (26), Issue 4, pp. 511-520. Hoffman, E.R. and Mortimer, G.R. (1996) Scaling of relative velocity between vehicles. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volume (28), Issue 4, July 1996, pp. 415-421. Johansson, G. and Rumer, K. (1971) Drivers’ brake reaction times. Human Factors, Volume (13), No. 1, Feb., pp. 23-27. Kometani, E. and Sasaki, T. (1959) Dynamic behaviour of traffic with non-linear spacing-speed relationship. In Symp. Theory Traffic Flow, Research Laboratory, General Motors, New York, pp. 105-109. Kotsialos, A. and Papageorgiou, M. (2001) The Importance of traffic flow modelling for motorway traffic control, Networks and Spatial Economics, 1, Netherlands, pp. 179-203. Lerner N., Huey R., McGee H. and Sullivan A. (1995) Older driver perception-reaction time for intersection sight distance and object detection, Report FHWA-RD-93-168, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington DC. Maycock, G, Brocklebank, P. and Hall, R. (1999) Road layout design standards and driver behaviour. Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers Transport, pp.115-122. Michaels, R.M. (1963) Perceptual Factors in Car following. In Proceeding of the 2nd International Symposium on the Theory of Traffic Flow - OECD. pp. 44-59, Paris. Michaels, R.M. and Cozan, L.W. (1963) Perceptual and field factors causing lateral displacements. Public Roads 32. pp. 233-240. Nagel, K., (1995) High-speed micro simulations of traffic flow. PhD Thesis, University of Cologne, Germany Nagel, K., (1998) From particle hopping models to traffic flow theory. Transportation Research Record 1644, Washington, DC, pp. 1–9 O’Flaherty, C.A. (1986) Highways. Volume (1), Traffic planning and Engineering, 3rd Edition, Edward Arnold, London. Panwai, S. and Dia, H. (2005) Comparative evaluation of microscopic car-following behaviour. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation System, Volume (6), No. 3, pp. 314-325. Parker, M.T. (1996) The effect of heavy goods vehicles and following behaviour on capacity at motorway roadwork sites. Traffic Engineering and Control, Volume (37), pp. 524-531. Wu, J., Brackstone, M. and McDonald, M. (2003) The validation of a microscopic simulation model: a methodological case study. Transportation Research Part C, Volume (11), pp. 643-479. Yousif, S. (1993) Effect of Lane Changing on traffic operation for dual carriageway roads with roadworks, PhD Thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff. Zhang, X. and Bham, G.H. (2007) Estimation of driver reaction time from detailed vehicle trajectory data. Proceeding of the 18th IASTED International Conference, pp. 574-579.

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)


Downloads per month over past year