Wetlands for wastewater treatment and subsequent recycling of treated effluent : a review

Almuktar, SAAN, Abed, SN and Scholz, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8919-3838 2018, 'Wetlands for wastewater treatment and subsequent recycling of treated effluent : a review' , Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 25 (24) , pp. 23595-23623.

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Due to water scarcity challenges around the world, it is essential to think about non-conventional water resources to address the increased demand in clean freshwater. Environmental and public health problems may result from insufficient provision of sanitation and wastewater disposal facilities. Because of this, wastewater treatment and recycling methods will be vital to provide sufficient freshwater in the coming decades, since water resources are limited and more than 70% of water are consumed for irrigation purposes. Therefore, the application of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation has much potential, especially when incorporating the reuse of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential for plant production. Among the current treatment technologies applied in urban wastewater reuse for irrigation, wetlands were concluded to be the one of the most suitable ones in terms of pollutant removal and have advantages due to both low maintenance costs and required energy. Wetland behavior and efficiency concerning wastewater treatment is mainly linked to macrophyte composition, substrate, hydrology, surface loading rate, influent feeding mode, microorganism availability, and temperature. Constructed wetlands are very effective in removing organics and suspended solids, whereas the removal of nitrogen is relatively low, but could be improved by using a combination of various types of constructed wetlands meeting the irrigation reuse standards. The removal of phosphorus is usually low, unless special media with high sorption capacity are used. Pathogen removal from wetland effluent to meet irrigation reuse standards is a challenge unless supplementary lagoons or hybrid wetland systems are used.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Publisher: Springer
ISSN: 0944-1344
Related URLs:
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2018 14:36
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2022 23:32
URI: https://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/47807

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