Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin like growth factor-1 and inflammatory cytokine responses to continuous and intermittent exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Żebrowska, A, Hall, BD, Maszczyk, A, Banaś, R and Urban, J 2018, 'Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin like growth factor-1 and inflammatory cytokine responses to continuous and intermittent exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes.' , Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 144 , pp. 126-136.

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Abstract

Aims
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an important risk factor for cognitive decline and motor dysfunction due to progressive muscular atrophy. Chronic hyperglycemia may be responsible for impaired vascular function, loss of muscle mass, and morphological abnormalities in the myocytes. For the proper functioning of the neuromuscular system, two crucial growth factors are necessary: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), whose reduced expressions have been implicated in progressive neuropathy and muscle atrophy in patients with T1DM.

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of two different exercise regimes (continuous and intermittent) on BDNF, IGF-1, blood glucose and inflammatory cytokine responses in young adults with and without Type 1 diabetes.

Methods
Fourteen patients (aged: 26.9 years) with T1DM and age-matched adults without diabetes participated in a 40 min continuous exercise (ExC, 50% of lactate threshold) and a high intensity intermittent exercise (ExInt, 120% of lactate threshold). During the study the patients performed self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (SMBG) under glycemic control. The effects of ExC and ExInt on BDNF, IGF-1, insulin like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed.

Results
BDNF and IGF-1 baseline serum levels were significantly lower in the T1DM patients compared to the healthy controls, but we found that ExInt and ExC significantly increase the secretion of BDNF and IGF-1 levels. Significant increases in BDNF and TGF-β levels, higher blood glucose decline, and a lower incidence of hypoglycaemia in ExInt compared to ExC were observed. Lower IGFBP-3 concentrations were revealed in T1DM patients in response to ExInt compared to ExC, suggesting a positive effect on IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the bioavailability of IGF-1.

Conclusions
According to our results physical exercise has beneficial effects on serum BDNF and IGF-1 levels. A high-intensity intermittent exercise may be more effective at reducing the risk of exercise-induced glycaemic disorders in the T1DM patients as compared to continuous exercise.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: BDNF, Diabetes, Exercise training, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, Neuroregeneration
Schools: Schools > School of Health and Society
Journal or Publication Title: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1872-8227
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2018 10:48
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2018 10:48
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/48438

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