Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs in Yucatan, Mexico

Cubas-Atienzar, AI, Hide, G ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3608-0175, Jiménez-Coello, M, Ortega-Pacheco, A and Smith, JE 2018, 'Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs in Yucatan, Mexico' , Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, 14 , pp. 191-199.

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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. The parasite exhibits strong geographical patterns of strain variation with contrasting high levels of diversity across South America and restricted variation across North America. Little is known about the diversity of strains in the transitional area between the two continents. Here we present data on the prevalance and diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, through a study in commercially reared pigs. A survey of 12 farms found evidence of circulating T. gondii DNA in 125 of 632 blood samples (19.8%, CI: 16.7%–23%). In addition, 46 tongue samples were collected from culled animals and 16 of these were positive for T. gondii DNA and 3 were positive in mouse bioassay. PCR-sequencing was used to generate genotyping data from blood and tissue samples. Four loci (SAG1, 2, 3 and GRA6) were reliably amplified and revealed a high diversity among Yucatan strains with evidence of recombination and novel alleles. Sequencing data from the four loci was achieved in eight samples each of which had a different genotype. The predominant allelic type was atypical, in relation to the dominant strain types (I, II, III), the number of allelic variants being 27 (I, II-III, u-1-25), 20 (I, III, u1-18), 6 (I, III, u1-4) and 11 (I, II, u1-9) for the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 loci respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that T. gondii strains from Yucatan shared alleles with strains originating from both North and South America. Our findings are consistent with data from other regions of Central America and suggest the genetic population structure of the parasite, with significant levels of allelic variation and recombination, constitutes a reservoir from which new strains may emerge. Positive bioassay results (7.5%) indicate that consumption of undercooked pork could be a potential T. gondii infection risk to humans.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Biomedical Research Centre
Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Ecosystems and Environment Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 2405-9390
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Professor Geoff Hide
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2018 14:31
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2019 10:32
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/49064

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