An investigation into the roles of chlorides and sulphate salts on the performance of low salinity injection in sandstone reservoirs : experimental approach

Al-otaibi, A ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7607-5285 2020, 'An investigation into the roles of chlorides and sulphate salts on the performance of low salinity injection in sandstone reservoirs : experimental approach' , Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 10 , pp. 2857-2871.

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Abstract

Numerous studies have been carried out to ascertain the mechanisms of low salinity and smart water flooding technique for improved oil recovery. Focus were often on brine composition and, specifically the cationic content in sandstone reservoirs. Given the importance of the salt composition and concentration, tweaking the active ions which are responsible for the fluids-rock equilibrium will bring into effect numerous mechanisms of displacement which have been extensively debated. This experimental study, however, was carried out to evaluate the extent of the roles of chloride and sulphate-based brines in improved oil recovery. To carry this out, 70,000 ppm sulphates and chloride-based brines were prepared to simulate formation water and 5,000ppm brines of the same species as low salinity displacement fluids. Core flooding process was used to simulate the displacement of oil by using four (4) native sandstones core samples, obtained from Burgan oil field in Kuwait, at operating conditions of 1500 psig and 50oC. The core samples were injected with 70,000 ppm chloride and sulphates and subsequently flooded with the 5,000 ppm counterparts in a forced imbibition process. Separate evaluations of chloride and sulphate-based brines were carried out to investigate the displacement efficiencies of each brine species. The results showed that the in both high and low salinity displacement tests, the SO4 brine presented better recovery of up to 89% of the initial oil saturation (Soi). Several mechanisms of displacement were observed to be responsible for improved recovery during SO4 brine displacement. IFT measurement experiments also confirmed that there was reduction in IFT at test conditions between SO4 brine and oil and visual inspection of the effluent showed a degree emulsification of oil and brines. Changes in pH were observed in the low salinity flooding and negligible changes were noticed in the high salinity floods. These results provide an insight into the roles of chloride and sulphate ions in the design of smart “designer” water and low salinity injection scenarios.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Journal or Publication Title: Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology
Publisher: Springer
ISSN: 2190-0558
Related URLs:
Depositing User: ATHARI Al-otaibi
Date Deposited: 03 Aug 2020 11:09
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2020 08:01
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/57747

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