The effect of speed on Achilles tendon forces and patellofemoral joint stresses in high performing endurance runners

Starbuck, C ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6266-2876, Bramah, CA ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3644-9873, Herrington, LC ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4732-1955 and Jones, R ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5242-185X 2021, 'The effect of speed on Achilles tendon forces and patellofemoral joint stresses in high performing endurance runners' , Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports .

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Access Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Starbuck, C., Bramah, C., Herrington, L. and Jones, R. (2021), The effect of speed on Achilles tendon forces and patellofemoral joint stresses in high performing endurance runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports., which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13972. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.

Abstract

Achilles tendinopathy and patellofemoral pain are common running injuries associated with increased Achilles tendon (AT) forces and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) stresses. This study examined AT forces and PFJ stresses at different running speeds in high performing endurance runners. Twenty runners ran overground at four running speeds (3.3, 3.9, 4.8 and 5.6m/s). AT forces and PFJ stresses were estimated from kinematic and kinetic data. Repeated measures ANOVA with partial eta squared effect sizes were conducted to assess differences between running speeds. Increased peak AT forces (19.5%; p<.001) and loading rates (57.3%; p<.001) from 3.3m/s to 5.6m/s were observed. Cumulative AT loading was greater in the faster speeds compared to the slower speeds. Faster running speeds resulted in increased peak plantar flexor moments, increased peak plantarflexion angles, and a more flexed knee and an anterior centre of pressure position at touchdown. Peak PFJ stress was lower in the slowest speed (3.3 m/s) compared to the faster running speeds (3.9‐5.6m/s; p=.005). PFJ stress loading rate significantly increased (43.6%; p<.001). Greater AT loading observed could be associated with strategies such as increased plantar flexor moments and altered lower body position at touchdown which are commonly employed to generate greater ground contact forces. Greater AT and PFJ loading rates were likely due to shorter ground contact times and therefore less time available to reach the peak. Running at faster speeds could increase the risk of developing Achilles tendinopathy and patellofemoral pain or limit recovery from these injuries without sufficient recovery.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Health and Society > Centre for Health Sciences Research
Journal or Publication Title: Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0905-7188
Related URLs:
Depositing User: C Starbuck
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2021 07:34
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2021 08:01
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/60088

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