Agile methodology implementation in Lebanon

Rahy, S ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6579-6818 2021, Agile methodology implementation in Lebanon , PhD thesis, University of Salford.

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Abstract

Agile methods are being adopted in the software development industry increasingly and even beyond this sector. Outsourcing software development from developing countries in the Global South is increasing in the industry. With Lebanon being the hub for outsourcing software for the MENA region, practitioners require guidance to overcome challenges upon agile implementation taking into consideration the Lebanese context. The literature lacks information on agile software development in the Global South, specially Lebanon. The aim of this thesis is to add new knowledge on agile software development industry in Lebanon through studying the extend of agile methodology implementation, agile tailoring, and impediments faced when implementing agile. The methodology implemented is a mixed method qualitative research divided into four phases involving 49 practitioners from 5 different software organizations. The first phase describes the data collection strategy that involves interviews and observations. The second phase involves the data analysis in a within-case analysis using an approach informed by Grounded Theory. The third phase is divided into two parts. Part A involves a cross case analysis comparing the findings from all research sites. Part B involves the model creation. The last phase is the intervention study conducted at the chosen Lebanese software development site. This thesis describes the status of agile software development in the chosen Lebanese sites through creating a baseline model. This model uses the swim lane diagram to describe the process of agile software development in one iteration while highlighting the ceremonies, roles, and activities conducted. This thesis also identifies a collection of 22 influences, out of which 10 are novel influences, that affect the practitioner’s ability to implement agile in Lebanon. Of these three are novel amplifiers: level of information sharing, overcoming geographical distances, and the need to succeed. Also seven are novel impediments: extensive micro management by the CEO and upper managers, the reasons behind the lacking of agile ceremonies, task estimation done by managers in agile, employee’s fear, lack of respect to time, the effects of the economic crisis on daily routines, and nepotism. In addition, the thesis corroborates 12 influences on agile implementation in the chosen Lebanese research sites to the existing literature. The study then applies a cross-case analysis to compare agile implementation in all studied research sites in The Netherlands, Kenya, and India. This analysis reveals two approaches to agile implementation characterized by either a pure implementation of agile methods or mixing agile with traditional methods. The study then introduces illustrative examples demonstrating a step-by-step process to tackle non-functional requirements using agile methods and introducing two new artefacts. Then, this thesis creates a novel tailored agile implementation model to fit the Lebanese context. The model tackles the identified influences using agile practices that are tailored when needed. The model is finally validated by engaging with practitioners in the Lebanese research site causing positive changes. These include interventions to overcome task estimation and allocation by managers, reduce employee’s fear, enhance agile understanding, enhance collaboration through introducing the previously lacking agile roles and ceremonies, actions to improve Lebanese customer involvement, and actions to mitigate the implementation of agile in the Global South context.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Contributors: Bass, J (Supervisor)
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Depositing User: Scarlet Rahy
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2021 14:40
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2021 14:40
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/61779

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