Assessment of capsicum annuum L. grown in controlled and semi-controlled environments irrigated with greywater treated by floating wetland systems

Almuktar, SAAAN, Abed, SN, Scholz, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8919-3838 and Uzomah, VC ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3971-4206 2021, 'Assessment of capsicum annuum L. grown in controlled and semi-controlled environments irrigated with greywater treated by floating wetland systems' , Agronomy, 11 (9) , e1817.

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Abstract

Accumulation of trace elements, including heavy metals, were evaluated in soil and fruits of chilli plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under both laboratory-controlled and semi-controlled greenhouse location conditions. Chilli plant biomass growth in different development stages and fruit productivity were evaluated and compared with each other for the impact of growth boundary conditions and water quality effects. Treated synthetic greywaters by different operational design set-ups of floating treatment wetland systems were recycled for watering chillies in both locations. Effluents of each individual group of treatment set-up systems were labelled to feed sets of three replicates of chilli plants in both locations. Results revealed that the treated synthetic greywater (SGW) complied with thresholds for irrigation water, except for high concentrations (HC) of phosphates, total suspended soils, and some trace elements, such as cadmium. Chilli plants grew in both locations with different growth patterns in each development stage. First blooming and high counts of flowers were observed in the laboratory. Higher fruit production was noted for greenhouse plants: 2266 chilli fruits with a total weight of 16.824 kg with an expected market value of GBP 176.22 compared to 858 chilli fruits from the laboratory with a weight of 3.869 kg and an estimated price of GBP 17.61. However, trace element concentrations were detected in chilli fruits with the ranking order of occurrence as: Mg > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Al > Mn > Cu > Cd > Cr > Ni > B. The highest concentrations of accumulated Cd (3.82 mg/kg), Cu (0.56 mg/kg), and Na (0.56 mg/kg) were recorded in chilli fruits from the laboratory, while greater accumulations of Ca, Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni with concentrations of 4.73, 1.30, 0.20, 0.21, and 0.24 mg/kg, respectively, were linked to fruits from the greenhouse. Trace elements in chilli plant soils followed the trend: Mg > Fe > Al > Cr > Mn > Cd > Cu > B. The accumulated concentrations in either chilli fruits or the soil were above the maximum permissible thresholds, indicating the need for water quality improvements.

Item Type: Article
Contributors: Beltrao, J (Editor)
Additional Information: ** From MDPI via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ **Journal IDs: eissn 2073-4395 **History: published 10-09-2021; accepted 07-09-2021
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Agronomy
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2073-4395
Related URLs:
Funders: European Union Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 14 Sep 2021 08:18
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2021 07:20
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/61848

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