Cumulative effects of a week’s training loads on shoulder physical qualities and wellness in competitive swimmers

Yoma, M ORCID:, Herrington, LC ORCID: and Mackenzie, TA ORCID: 2021, 'Cumulative effects of a week’s training loads on shoulder physical qualities and wellness in competitive swimmers' , International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 16 (6) , pp. 1470-1484.

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Background: Competitive swimmers are exposed to high training loads, which can contribute to the development of shoulder pain. There is a lack of research investigating the interactions between the accumulation of training loads and factors associated to shoulder pain in swimmers. Purpose: The primary objective was to analyze the changes in shoulder physical qualities and wellness factors over a week of training in competitive swimmers. A secondary objective was to compare the changes in these variables between different swim-training volumes performed during the week. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Thirty-one national and regional-level swimmers were included (18 females, 13 males; age= 15.5 ± 2.2 years). Active shoulder external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM), shoulder-rotation isometric torque, and wellness factors using the Hooper questionnaire were measured twice over the week: a baseline measurement (before Monday´s training session) and a follow-up during the week. Participants were divided into a high-volume group (HVG) and low-volume group (LVG) based on the day follow-up was performed. HVL (n= 15) was tested at the end of the training week (after Saturday´s session) and LVG (n= 16) during the week (after Thursday or Friday´s session). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of the whole week was recorded after the follow-up session. Results: At follow-up, the LVG averaged a volume of 26.2 ± 2.2 km, whereas the HVG averaged a volume of 37.5 ± 3.7 km. LVG and HVG participants decreased active shoulder ER ROM on dominant (p= 0.002; p= 0.006) and nondominant sides (p= 0.001; p= 0.004), displayed increased muscular soreness (p= 0.001; p= 0.007) and worsened overall wellness (p< 0.001; p= 0.010). Fatigue (p= 0.008) and poor sleep quality were increased (p= 0.023) in HVG, but not in LVG. There were no changes in shoulder-rotation torque and stress in any group. Regarding between-groups differences, only weekly RPE was higher (p= 0.004) in HVG. Conclusions: The accumulation of training loads over the week negatively affect physical and wellness factors. Greater swim-volumes were associated with an increase perception of training loads. The regular monitoring of multiple factors to assess swimmers’ response to training might be necessary.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From Crossref journal articles via Jisc Publications Router **Journal IDs: eissn 2159-2896 **History: issued 01-12-2021; published_online 01-12-2021
Schools: Schools > School of Health and Society
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Publisher: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
ISSN: 2159-2896
Related URLs:
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2021 09:58
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2022 17:01

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