Inhibitory Immune Checkpoint Receptors and Ligands as Prognostic Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients.

Al-Mterin, Mohammad A, Alsalman, Alhasan and Elkord, Eyad 2022, 'Inhibitory Immune Checkpoint Receptors and Ligands as Prognostic Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients.' , Frontiers in immunology, 13 , p. 870283.

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Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2. During T-cell activation, the immune system uses different checkpoint pathways to maintain co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory signals. In COVID-19, expression of immune checkpoints (ICs) is one of the most important manifestations, in addition to lymphopenia and inflammatory cytokines, contributing to worse clinical outcomes. There is a controversy whether upregulation of ICs in COVID-19 patients might lead to T-cell exhaustion or activation. This review summarizes the available studies that investigated IC receptors and ligands in COVID-19 patients, as well as their effect on T-cell function. Several IC receptors and ligands, including CTLA-4, BTLA, TIM-3, VISTA, LAG-3, TIGIT, PD-1, CD160, 2B4, NKG2A, Galectin-9, Galectin-3, PD-L1, PD-L2, LSECtin, and CD112, were upregulated in COVID-19 patients. Based on the available studies, there is a possible relationship between disease severity and increased expression of IC receptors and ligands. Overall, the upregulation of some ICs could be used as a prognostic biomarker for disease severity. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 Al-Mterin, Alsalman and Elkord.]

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences > Biomedical Research Centre
Journal or Publication Title: Frontiers in immunology
ISSN: 1664-3224
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2022 12:41
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2022 09:31
URI: https://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/63771

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