Varietal differences influence arsenic and lead contamination of rice grown in mining impacted agricultural fields of Zamfara State, Nigeria

Mandal, J ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0814-0369, Bakare, WA ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7736-043X, Rahman, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3426-5221, Rahman, M, Siddique, A, Oku, E, Wood, M, Hutchinson, S and Mondal, D ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5144-626X 2022, 'Varietal differences influence arsenic and lead contamination of rice grown in mining impacted agricultural fields of Zamfara State, Nigeria' , Chemosphere, 305 .

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Abstract

In Zamfara state, Nigeria, rice is cultivated in fields contaminated with Pb (lead) from artisanal and illicit mining activities. Rice grown in such contaminated agricultural areas risks not only Pb contamination but also contamination from other toxic elements, like arsenic (As); co-contamination of Pb and As in rice cultivated in mining impacted areas has been previously reported and rice is a hyperaccumulator of As. A field study was conducted with ten different commonly-cultivated Nigerian rice varieties in the mining-impacted farmlands of Dareta village, Zamfara State. The aim was to determine the optimal rice variety for cultivation on these contaminated farmlands; an optimal variety would have the lowest contaminant concentrations and highest essential elements concentrations in the rice grains. A total of 300 paired soil and rice plants were collected. The mean As and Pb concentrations in paddy soils were 0.91 ± 0.82 mg kg−1 and 288.5 ± 464.2 mg kg−1, respectively. Mean As (30.4 ± 15.1 μg kg−1) content in rice grains was an order of magnitude lower than the Codex recommendation of 200 μg kg−1 (for milled rice) while the Pb content in all the rice varieties (overall mean of 743 ± 327 μg kg−1) was approximately four times higher than the Codex recommendation of 200 μg kg−1. Contrary to previous studies, a negative correlation was observed between As and Pb in rice grains across all the varieties. Rice variety Bisalayi was the variety with the lowest Pb transfer factor (TF = 0.08), but the average Pb concentration in rice grain was still above the Codex recommendation. Bisalayi also had the highest TF for iron. Variety ART_15, which had the lowest As uptake (TF = 0.10), had the highest TF for essential elements (magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and copper). In areas of Pb contamination, Bisalayi rice may therefore be a suitable variety to choose for cultivation.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Chemosphere
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0045-6535
Depositing User: Jajati Mandal
Date Deposited: 25 Jul 2022 14:43
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2022 08:34
URI: https://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/64244

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