Mast cell activation syndrome and the link with long COVID

Arun, S, Storan, A and Myers, B 2022, 'Mast cell activation syndrome and the link with long COVID' , British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 83 (7) , pp. 1-10.

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Abstract

Mast cells are innate immune cells found in connective tissues throughout the body, most prevalent at tissue-environment interfaces. They possess multiple cell-surface receptors which react to various stimuli and, after activation, release many mediators including histamine, heparin, cytokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and proteases. In mast cell activation syndrome, excessive amounts of inflammatory mediators are released in response to triggers such as foods, fragrances, stress, exercise, medications or temperature changes. Diagnostic markers may be difficult to assess because of their rapid degradation; these include urinary N-methyl histamine, urinary prostaglandins D , DM and F and serum tryptase (which is stable) in the UK. Self-management techniques, medications and avoiding triggers may improve quality of life. Treatments include mast cell mediator blockers, mast cell stabilisers and anti-inflammatory agents. 'Long COVID' describes post-COVID-19 syndrome when symptoms persist for more than 12 weeks after initial infection with no alternative diagnosis. Both mast cell activation syndrome and long COVID cause multiple symptoms. It is theorised that COVID-19 infection could lead to exaggeration of existing undiagnosed mast cell activation syndrome, or could activate normal mast cells owing to the persistence of viral particles. Other similarities include the relapse-remission cycle and improvements with similar treatments. Importantly, however, aside from mast cell disorders, long COVID could potentially be attributed to several other conditions.

Item Type: Article
Journal or Publication Title: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Publisher: Mark Allen Publishing
ISSN: 1750-8460
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2022 13:31
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2022 13:31
URI: http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/64621

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