A comprehensive review for removal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attained from wastewater observations using carbon-based anodic oxidation process

Mussa, ZH, Al-Qaim, FF, Jawad, AH ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4827-9093, Scholz, M ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8919-3838 and Yaseen, ZM 2022, 'A comprehensive review for removal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attained from wastewater observations using carbon-based anodic oxidation process' , Toxics, 10 (10) .

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Abstract

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (concentration <µg/L) are globally acknowledged as hazardous emerging pollutants that pass via various routes in the environment and ultimately enter aquatic food chains. In this context, the article reviews the occurrence, transport, fate, and electrochemical removal of some selected NSAIDs (diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), ibuprofen (IBU), and naproxen (NPX)) using carbon-based anodes in the aquatic environment. However, no specific protocol has been developed to date, and various approaches have been adopted for the sampling and elimination processes of NSAIDs from wastewater samples. The mean concentration of selected NSAIDs from different countries varies considerably, ranging between 3992–27,061 µg/L (influent wastewater) and 1208–7943 µg/L (effluent wastewater). An assessment of NSAIDs removal efficiency across different treatment stages in various wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been performed. Overall, NSAIDs removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants has been reported to be around 4–89%, 8–100%, 16–100%, and 17–98% for DIC, KTP, NPX, and IBU, respectively. A microbiological reactor (MBR) has been proclaimed to be the most reliable treatment technique for NSAIDs removal (complete removal). Chlorination (81–95%) followed by conventional mechanical biological treatment (CMBT) (94–98%) treatment has been demonstrated to be the most efficient in removing NSAIDs. Further, the present review explains that the electrochemical oxidation process is an alternative process for the treatment of NSAIDs using a carbon-based anode. Different carbon-based carbon anodes have been searched for electrochemical removal of selected NSAIDs. However, boron-doped diamond and graphite have presented reliable applications for the complete removal of NSAIDs from wastewater samples or their aqueous solution.

Item Type: Article
Contributors: Morgado, RG (Editor), Cardoso, DN (Editor) and Rosal, R (Editor)
Schools: Schools > School of Computing, Science and Engineering
Journal or Publication Title: Toxics
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2305-6304
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2022 11:36
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2022 11:45
URI: https://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/65642

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