Exhaustion and over-activation of immune cells in COVID-19: challenges and therapeutic opportunities

Alahdal, M and Elkord, E 2022, 'Exhaustion and over-activation of immune cells in COVID-19: challenges and therapeutic opportunities' , Clinical Immunology, 245 .

PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Exhaustion of immune cells in COVID-19 remains a serious concern for infection management and therapeutic interventions. As reported, immune cells such as T effector cells (Teff), T regulatory cells (Tregs), natural killer cells (NKs), and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) exhibit uncontrolled functions in COVID-19. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that orchestrate immune cell functionality and virus interaction are still unknown. Recent studies linked adaptive immune cell exhaustion to underlying epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the epigenetic transcription of inhibitory immune checkpoint receptors (ICs). Further to that, the over-activation of T cells accompanied by the dysfunctionality of DCs and Tregs may enhance uncontrollable alveoli inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19. This might explain the reasons behind the failure of DC-based vaccines in inducing sufficient anti-viral responses. This review explains the processes behind the over-activation and exhaustion of innate and adaptive immune cells in COVID-19, which may contribute to developing novel immune intervention strategies.

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Clinical Immunology
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1521-6616
Depositing User: USIR Admin
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2022 10:29
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2022 10:30
URI: https://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/65834

Actions (login required)

Edit record (repository staff only) Edit record (repository staff only)


Downloads per month over past year