Autism Spectrum Disorders in high secure psychiatric care : a review of literature, future research and clinical directions

Murphy, D and Allely, CS ORCID: 2020, 'Autism Spectrum Disorders in high secure psychiatric care : a review of literature, future research and clinical directions' , Advances in Autism, 6 (1) , pp. 17-34.

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism, high functioning autism, Asperger’s syndrome and atypical autism. Although different diagnostic classification systems have been adopted over the years, contemporary criteria follow those set out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases version five - DSM 5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013) and the International Classification of Diseases eleventh edition by the World Health Organisation – ICD 11 (WHO, 2018) that group all under the single category of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prevalence studies suggest that ASD is not rare with approximately one in a hundred individuals in the general population (Baird, Simonoff, Pickles, Chandler, Loucas et al. 2006). Although males are more likely to receive the diagnosis of an ASD (Brugha, McManus, Bankart, Scott, Purdon et al., 2011; Loomes, Hull, & Mandy, 2017), it is likely that the prevalence rate among women is significantly underestimated (Beggiato, Peyre, Maruani, Scheid, Rastam et al. 2016) and with the reasons poorly understood (Adamou, Johnson, & Alty, 2018). Additional studies also suggest that the skewed male / female ratio is unevenly distributed across the spectrum (Kikovski et al. 2013) and may actually decrease as the symptom severity of ASD increases (Werling & Geschwind, 2013). Having an ASD is also considered to be life-long. Whilst the causation behind having an ASD remains unknown, likely explanations include genetic / environmental interactions (Chaste & Leboyer, 2012) resulting in atypical brain maturation and a disconnection between key brain regions (Ecker, 2016). It is also common for individuals with an ASD to have other neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Matson, Rieske & Williams, 2013; Taylor, Charman, & Ronald, 2015; Antshel, Zhang- James, Wagner, Ledesma, & Faraone, 2016) and intellectual difficulties (Matson & Shoemaker, 2009), neurological issues such as epilepsy (Brookes-Kayal, 2010) and sensory difficulties related to vision and hearing (Kancherla, Naarden Braun & Yeargin-Allsopp, 2013). Co-morbid psychiatric disorder including anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and a psychosis may also be present (Ghaziuddin, Ghaziuddin, & Greden, 2002; Hammond & Hoffman, 2014; Matson & Williams, 2014; Moss, Howlin, Savage, Bolton, & Rutter, 2015; Maddox & White, 2015; Bruggink, Huisman, Vuijk, Kraaij, & Garnefski, 2016).

Item Type: Article
Schools: Schools > School of Health and Society > Centre for Health Sciences Research
Journal or Publication Title: Advances in Autism
Publisher: Emerald
ISSN: 2056-3868
Related URLs:
Depositing User: CS Allely
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2018 10:15
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2022 00:25

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