An early Oligocene age for the oldest known monkeys and rodents of South America

Campbell, KE ORCID:, O'Sullivan, PB ORCID:, Fleagle, JG, de Vries, D ORCID: and Seiffert, ER ORCID: 2021, 'An early Oligocene age for the oldest known monkeys and rodents of South America' , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 118 (37) , e2105956118.

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The Santa Rosa fossil locality in eastern Perú produced the first Paleogene vertebrate fauna from the Amazon Basin, including the oldest known monkeys from South America. This diverse paleofauna was originally assigned an Eocene age based largely on the stage of evolution of the site's caviomorph rodents and marsupials. Here, we present detrital zircon dates that indicate that the maximum composite age of Santa Rosa is 29.6 ± 0.08 Ma (Lower Oligocene), although several zircons from Santa Rosa date to the Upper Oligocene. The first appearance datum for Caviomorpha in South America is purported to be the CTA-27 site in the Contamana region of Perú, which is hypothesized to be ∼41 Ma (Middle Eocene) in age. However, the presence of the same caviomorph species and/or genera at both CTA-27 and at Santa Rosa is now difficult to reconcile with a >11-My age difference. To further test the Middle Eocene age estimate for CTA-27, we ran multiple Bayesian tip-dating analyses of Caviomorpha, treating the ages of all Paleogene species from Perú as unknown. These analyses produced mean age estimates for Santa Rosa that closely approximate the maximum 29.6 ± 0.08 Ma composite date provided by detrital zircons, but predict that CTA-27 is much younger than currently thought (∼30 Ma). We conclude that the ∼41 Ma age proposed for CTA-27 is incorrect, and that there are currently no compelling Eocene records of either rodents or primates in the known fossil record of South America.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From PubMed via Jisc Publications Router **Journal IDs: eissn 1091-6490 **Article IDs: pubmed: 34493667; pii: 2105956118 **History: submitted 21-07-2021; accepted 08-07-2021
Schools: Schools > School of Environment and Life Sciences
Journal or Publication Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 0027-8424
Related URLs:
SWORD Depositor: Publications Router
Depositing User: Publications Router
Date Deposited: 18 Nov 2021 08:18
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2022 07:39

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